The rune Tyr, Avestan Tištar, three Star, Celestial Arrow, and MIDSUMMER

In the runic alphabet *Tīwaz or Týr is a warrior rune, and teaches that valor and a noble cause will ultimately triumph, and carry the day. *Tīwaz is “Day Sky god, the god of sacred struggle, and just cause.”

To the Norse people of Scandinavia and Iceland the rune was known as Týr while to the Saxons it was called Tiw.

*Tīwaz is a cognate of Old Norse Týr, Gothic Teiws, and Old English Tīw. It goes back to reconstructed Proto Indo European *Déiwos “Day Sky god.” From the same root are derived Vedic Dyaúṣ, Greek. Ζεύς Zeus, Latin Iuppiter/Diēspiter, Hittite Sīus, Lithuanian Dievas; and Latvian Dievs, (See Didier Calin.)

In the poetic gathas a cognate from the same root, diva refers to “celestial, heavenly lights,” (See Yasna 31.20, 1st rhymed verse line.)

Týr is related to Polaris or the North Star in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem. Ancient Norse seamen used Polaris as their main navigational aid in their long journeys. The symbol of Týr as an ARROW pointing upward is a reference to this.

The symbolic link with the astral theme of the “heavenly arrow” is strongly present in Avestan, Vedic and Norse accounts, particularly with respect to tištariia, the “triangle constellation of Canis Major.”

In Avetsa, Tištariia literally the “three-star” refers to Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky, known also as the “dog star.”

According to the Avestan hymn 8.6-7 and 37-38, Tištar-iia flies in the sky like the ARROW shot by the most valiant archer of the Aryans, the hero araḵš or ereḵšö.

Avestan ereḵšö Old Iranian araḵš, is cognate with Greek arktos, “BEAR,” and goes back to reconstructed Indo European *rtko. In the Avesta, araḵš, is the proto type of the VALIANT WARRIOR fighting for a just, noble cause. The tale of the champion archer araḵš is about sacred struggle, heroism and selfless sacrifice.

The Avestan hymn to tištariia teaches that when all hope has faded, the brightest star/light in the sky will carry the day, and celestial waters will pour down from heaven. The great feast of the three-star is celebrated during the MIDSUMMER in the Avestan calendar.

In Zoroastrianism, life is an epic battle, and man must choose the Gods, goodness and nobility throughout the ages of this world, not because of fear or in hope of favors, but for the sake of virtue and goodness alone.

The idea of selfless sacrifice comes also in association with Týr in rune poetry. Fenris or Fenrir is a monstrous wolf in Norse Mythology. The Gods through the “gift of foresight” foresaw great calamity from Fenris. Týr’s right hand was sacrificed to trick the wolf, Fenris, into being chained.

Thus, Týr is a one-handed god, einhendr áss. The word for god here áss, is the same as Vedic asú and Avestan ahü.

An Old Norse rune poem says:
Týr er einhendr áss//ok ulfs leifar//ok hofa hilmir.
Týr is the one-handed god// and leavings of the wolf //and prince of temples, (Courtesy of Didier Calin.)

Another Norwegian rune poem says:
Týr er æinendr ása//opt værðr smiðr blása
Tyr is a one-handed god// often has the smith to blow, (Courtesy of Didier Calin.)

In conclusion, I shall add that the most solidly reconstructed Indo European constellation is Ursa Major, which is designated as THE BEAR in Greek, Vedic and Avestan, (Compare Latin ursā “bear” with Avestan ereḵšö.)

Eric Hamp has suggested a second constellation, a Triangle inspired by Avestan Tištariia or the “three star” constellation involving Sirius, or Greek Seíros, “the dog star.” This second constellation embraces bright stars in Orion, Canis Major (Sirius,) and Canis Minor Procyon (Avestan paoûrvin “the Preceding Star, the Star in Front,” Persian Parvin.)

It is worthwhile to add that Tištariia, like the Norse Polaris, was the protector of, and the navigational guide of the travelers, (See the book shāyest na shāyest 22.3.)


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1 Response to The rune Tyr, Avestan Tištar, three Star, Celestial Arrow, and MIDSUMMER

  1. Afterthought says:

    Another tour de force, thanks!

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