Celebration of Equinoxes, Solstices in Zoroastrianism, and the sacredness of nature


April 30th marks the beginning of the Zoroastrian “mid-spring” festival. The mid-spring festival lasts 5 days and culminates on May 4th. Maiδyö.zarəm literally means “middle of greenery and flowers,” and refers to the “bright golden green color of spring flowers and vegetation.” Compare Avestan zarəm.iia with Russian zelënyj “green.”

The word for SPRING in Avesta is however vanri, a cognate of Latin vēr and Old Church Slavonic vesna.

Maiδyö.zarəm is one of the 6 major thanks giving holidays of Zoroastrianism, along with Hamaß.paθ.maiδ.iia “Vernal EQUINOX” or the moment when the center/middle position maiδ.iia of the Sun and the celestial points/paths paθ are at the same hamaß or equal distance from each other; Maiδyö.šam “mid-summer;” and Maiδ.yaar “mid-year,” dating to the times that count of years were by winters.

Four of the thanksgiving holidays celebrate equinoxes and solstices, and the 2 others honor bountiful harvest, animal welfare and stewardship.

Maiδyö.zarem lies halfway between vernal equinox and summer solstice, and is the festival of the pure essence/nectar of flowers and plants. The Avestan epithet of maiδyö.zarem is paiian meaning milk, syrup, nectar,” a cognate of Lithuanian pienas “milk” Greek pion “fat, cream.”

During the mid-spring holiday rituals using the symbolic use of fire and bright flowers are performed to encourage growth, the abundance of milk and dairy products, and protect the cattle, crops and people from harm and negative energies.

Doorways, windows, equipment for milking, butter making and cattle themselves are decorated with bright flowers to evoke fire and youthfulness.

Like all other Zoroastrian rituals, bonfires are kindled, and their flames, smoke and ashes are used in sacred rituals. Family hearths and sacred flames are re-lit from the bonfires. When the bonfire has died down, the ashes from it are thrown in the fields for increased energy, renewed vitality, and assuring future bountiful harvest.

No Indo European poet is more keenly alive to the praises of all that is sublime and beautiful in nature more than the Aryan seer/prophet Zarathustra.

Zoroastrian worship is closely connected to the celebration of the joyous things in life and the sacredness of pristine nature.

Central to the Zoroastrian belief is the assertion that each aspect of the material universe is a symbol of one of the Immortals. Thus the invocation invoked to each of the Brilliant Immortals is addressed to the material representation of the same Immortal in the material universe.

Zoroastrian faith has really no sacred icons, idols or any congregational worship. Instead worshippers, pay homage to lofty mountains, sacred springs, trees, holy waters, wind, hearth fire, celestial lights, stars, sun, moon and morning dawn.

Thus, the sacred poetry of the ancient Aryan poet-prophet as well as the Zoroastrian ritual worship, suggest a kind of poetical pantheism, and sees Godhood in all that is sublime and beautiful in pristine nature.

ardeshir

 

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Zarathustra, the Aryan prophet, the rising of ahuras, and Spring Renewal


Zarathustra was the ancient Aryan poet/prophet whose birth coincided with the celebration of spring, new dawn and renewal of vitality. His philosophy and ancient poetry is as well based on the Celebration of life/light, the will to excel and thrive, splendid new dawn, powers of renewal, and arising of the immanent Godhood within nature and man.

In his poetic gathas, the seer/prophet sings: “arise within me ahura” ûs-möi ûz.árešvá ahûrá, referring to the ascension of Godhood within nature and man. Zarathustra teaches to bring out the god within, and to nurture, develop the inner creative artist, and the skillful gardener of the worlds.

The religious sentiments of Zarathustra come straight from the heart; and there is a distinctively personal and passionate note about them. His poetic gathas sing of a luminous vision of the ahuras (Norse aesir,) and are a roadmap to become like the Immortal Gods, tãm daænãm ýá šmá.vatö ahûrá.

The keynote of Zarathustra’s religious doctrine is that we share the same ingenious/brilliant essence as the Immortals, and bear likeness to Godhood in lofty mind, purity, radiance, goodness and genius.

The gathas/songs of the ancient Aryan prophet start with the phrase ahiiá yásá. The word ahiiá “essence of being” is the equivalent of Vedic asiiá, and refers to sharing “the same essence as” the Immortal Gods/Godhood per the ancient Avestan commentaries. The second word yásá is a cognate of Greek zelós, and connects “essence of being” to “intense desire, passion, yearning, the quest for never-ending excellence.”

There is, indeed, nothing more characteristic of Zarathustra, than the conviction that we are impelled by the very constitution of our nature to wrestle and strive towards betterment, Godhood and excellence. Cosmic order/truth according to the famous ašem vôhü formula is about becoming ever better, and striving to excel ever higher.

According to the poet/prophet of the ancient Aryans, the supreme control of the universe and mortals belongs not to a blind or implacable fate, but to watchful and discerning ahuras, hvö vîčirö ahûrö//aθá-né aηhat ýaθá hvö vasat. The wisdom and will of Godhood impel the chariot of time forward. In the gathas, and the Avestan lore time is always cyclical. But the cyclical movement of time has a purpose and plan. The rotation of the wheel of time is not a blind movement, but an intelligent march of titans forward. See Yasna 44.17 concerning the wheel of time and chariot imagery in the poetic gathas.

In Zoroastrianism, the march of time will ultimately bring to fulfillment the triumph of the spirit, the will of the Immortals, and the overcoming of all limitations and flaws.

The wheel of Time rotates forward to create/redesign a more splendid, loftier creation always. There is no falling back to the age of reptilian monsters and apes in Zoroastrianism.

Godhood for the Aryan poet/prophet is ONLY the “odyssey of mind power, creative imagination, consciousness, the sacred Will to overcome limitations, the passionate desire to excel and thrive.”

Zarathustra teaches that visions/ideas are the real prime mover force, and that the secrets of the universe are encoded in the rhythms, modes, frequency, and vibrations of mind energy, imagination and consciousness.

He declares himself to be the prophet of the supreme god of “mind power and inspiring creativity” MAZDA. In Indo European sacred lore, MAZDA is closest to ODIN, “the wanderer wisdom.” Yet, etymologically MAZDA is related to Greek MUSES, who personified mind/will power, remembered all things that had come to pass, and gave artists, philosophers and individuals the necessary inspiration for creativity and innovation.

The gathas of the Aryan prophet talk of Mazdá and his ahûrás (in plural.) These ahûrás of the gathas have become the later Zoroastrian Auspicious or Brilliant Immortals.

The nature of ahûrás is connected to cosmic order/truth and eternal quest for excellence. Per the holiest mantra of Zoroastrianism: To become ahü or godlike is “one and the same as” becoming the knower of riddles of the cosmic order ratü, that is to know all the rites and formulas of the universe.

There is NO diversity of interests and clash of contending wills among the different Immortals or aspects of Godhood in Zoroastrianism, See Yasna 51.20.

Zarathustra teaches the Oneness of Godhood in “inspiring creativity, goodness, genius and truth,” but in NO remote way implies biblical kind of monotheism. Almost every poetic verse and metre in the gathas is an ode to the Brilliant Immortals.

The association of Zoroastrianism with monotheism is fairly recent, and goes back to 19th century Protestant Evangelist Martin Haug. NO ancient Greek, Roman, Babylonian, Assyrian, Hebrew, Christian, Chinese or Arab account of Zoroastrianism says or confirms ANYTHING about monotheism in relation to Zoroastrianism. More importantly, there is absolutely nothing in the Zoroastrian sacred lore that remotely resembles the shema of the Old Testament or hints at possible Old Testament like monotheism.

In the gathas and the rest of the Avestan lore, the Immortals are ONE LUMINOUS FORCE. Godhood headed by Mazdá is the force that “discovers, imagines, innovates, thinks, overcomes limitations and ever designs a more splendid creation.” Immortals are the author of goodness, genius, discovery and brilliance ONLY.

Zarathustra objected to the idea of the gods acting for some deranged pleasure of theirs. Immortals are exempt from the lower passions incident to human nature. In the vision/religion of Zarathustra Immortals are incapable of deception, cruelty, and infliction of misery. The Gods “know not sadism, flaws nor imperfections. They are pure goodness, genius and splendid mind power that press for the advantage and betterment of creation.

Powerful beings that ask for blood sacrifices of innocent animals, who show sadistic pleasure in tormenting mortals, who trick and deceive are NOT Gods but devils daævás. There is no killing of innocent animals in the gathic doctrine of Zarathustra. The only acceptable offering to Immortals is holy water, purity, good thoughts, good words, good deeds, and becoming ingenious/brilliant like Immortal Gods themselves.

Zarathustra does NOT believe in the doctrine of the envy of the Gods either. In the eyes of the seer/prophet of the ancient Aryans, the divine nature is NOT jealous or petty, and the so called gods that will not suffer any but themselves to think high thoughts or excel are NO Gods but “devil gods and demons” daævás, who are not worthy of worship.”

Man in Zoroastrianism is a free moral agent, not a slave. Zoroastrianism entirely rejects the notion of victimhood, and believes in consequences of choices, will power and the eventual triumph of the spirit. Mortal man in Zoroastrianism is the co-creator and fellow warrior of the Immortal Gods. The ultimate prize in the gathas belong to the fellow/co creators of the Immortals, those who write new, ever better songs in the celestial abode of music garö demánæ, where Mazdá, the supreme god of “mind power and inspiring creativity” arrived first and foremost See Yasna 51.15. This makes the Zoroastrian notion of immortality and glory pretty novel and unique.

Zoroastrian faith is not simply a very ancient Indo European religion, but a spiritual way of life meant for the noble ones. It is about the triumph of the sacred will to excel/overcome, and is exclusive to the co-workers of the Immortals, the wanderer wise, the philosopher warrior, and the noble stewards of the creation. Zoroastrianism is not and has never been a faith for the sheepish and the masses.

The Aryan seer/prophet Zarathustra brought into prominence the nobler and more ideal features of the Indo European pantheon, and purified the traditional theology of Aryans to its pristine purity according to the Avestan lore. May splendid glory be always to the Mazda worshipping religion, the teaching of the wise ahuras ahûra-tkaæšö.

ardeshir

Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment

Rapithwin, loftiest of all lights, and the Celtic goddess Brigit


 

In the Avestan calendar, the 3rd day after the vernal equinox is associated with aša vahišta or artha vahišta “truth, cosmic order, excellence, the very best,” and rapithwin “high noon,” when the sun is at the zenith of its radiance.

High noon is a powerful symbol in Zoroastrianism. It is a time of highest radiance, when there are no shadows, when everything is seen in the clear light, and when there is no obscurity/hiding.

In the Zoroastrian sacred lore, Öhrmazd performed the Yazišn “intense desire, zeal, yearning” with his brilliant Immortals, in the Rapithwin watch, and in that Yazišn he supplied every formula for overcoming blemish and all imperfections. Öhrmazd deliberated with baôd the “awakening force,” and fravaši “the primeval spirits.”

The duel between good and evil began at high noon, and it will be on high noon that the evil spirit will perish, and the worlds will become splendid and immortal.

Rapithwin appears in the form of arem pithwá in the poetic gathas. The term refers to the “highest point of the sun, and the southerly direction.”

This is confirmed by the Avestan prayer formula of Yasna 36.6 recited at high noon: imá raôč.áv//bareziš.tem barezi.ma.nãm, avat ýát//hvaré a.váčî

This light raôč.áv (German licht,) highest of the high bareziš.tem barezi.ma.nãm, yonder sun hvaré (Greek hélios.) is called a.váčî (voiced, expressed in words.)

The epithet bareziš.tem barezi.ma.nãm “highest of the high, the most lofty” comes from the Avestan root barez “high, lofty.” The word is connected to German berg “height, hill, mountain,” and Old Irish goddess Brigit “high, lofty one.”

Brigit in Celtic mythology is a continuation of the Indo-European dawn goddess, and associated with the spring season, fertility, healing, and poetry.

Saint Brigid shares many of the ancient goddess’s attributes and her feast day was originally a pagan festival (Imbolc) marking the beginning of spring.

High noon also marks the moment of truth, excelling and judgment in the Iliad poetry of ancient Greeks. The momentum of the fighting between the Achaeans and Trojans is hanging in the balance—until high noon arrives, at which point Zeus decides to get out his golden talanta ‘scales’, I.08.69, as he readies to weigh who will win and who will lose.

Then Zeus thunders from on high on top of Mount Ida, and he sends a flaming thunderbolt toward the Achaeans (I.08.076.) The word for the thunderbolt is selas, meaning literally a ‘flash of light’. This “flash of light” signals the Will of Zeus.

Bartholeme’s etymology of Rapithwin and suggested connection to Lithuanian pietūs appears to be wholly wrong.

High Noon is a time of highest radiance. The high radiance/light of noon symbolizes the judgment of the immortals, will to excel, powers of growth and the promise of an eternal spring.

ardeshir

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Nowruz “New Dawn/Day” and the Goddess of Spring/Dawn Ôstara


Nowruz or more accurately NAUV ROOZ is the most sacred and happy festival of Zoroastrianism. The “new dawn/light” after equinox is called Nauv rooz. This fresh “new dawn/day” is a reminder of the fresh “New Dawn/light” which will bring the future age of the Immortals, and the coming of everlasting spring, the faršö kereiti, when the worlds entire will be made “splendid, glorious and brilliant” for all eternity.

Our “limited time” will be succeeded by the “Time of Long Ages or the Age of the Gods” daregö xva-dhátahæ. The worlds will be made “pristine and pure,” as it was first in the luminous thought of Ahûrá Mazd­­á.

The ancient Avestan texts talk of celebrating the sacred moment when the center/middle position maiδ.iia of the Sun and the celestial points/paths paθ are at the same hamaß, or equal distance from each other called Hamaß.paθ.maiδ.iia or EQUINOX in the Avestan. Nauv rooz is the first “new dawn/light” after the spring equinox.

Nauv means “new” Rooz “light” comes from Avestan raôča, Vedic rociṣ-/ruci, Tocharian B lyuke Old Norse ljós, Old English lēoht, German licht, Latin. lūx, AstLeon. lluz; Spanish luz, all going back to reconstructed Proto Indo European *lóuks/léukos– “light.” (Courtesy of Didier Calin)

In Zoroastrianism, the “brilliant dawn” or uš bám prayer formula is a must read for every devout Zoroastrian in early morning hours.

In the gathic poetry, the glory of fresh dawn ûšá and “fulfillment of wishes” ûštá from the root vas ”wish, heart’s desire” are closely connected phonetically and through poetic imagery.

Likewise in the Vedas there is talk of “seers having found the hidden light and regenerating dawn” (Rig Veda 7.76.4.)

In Germanic Polytheism Ēostre, Old English: Ēastre, Old High German Ôstara is the glorious goddess of spring and dawn. Ôstara derives from Proto-Germanic *austrōn meaning “dawn,” a descendent of the Proto-Indo-European root *aus-, “to shine” (modern English EAST also derives from this root.)

Like the Avestan account the emphasis in Germanic Paganism is on the “regeneration of god-powers and a new age of Immortals.”

In Yasna 44.5 of the poetic gathas we read:

ké ýá ûšáv arém-piθwâ šapá.čá

 ýáv man.aôθrîš čaž.döηh.vañtem areθ.ahiiá

From whom (is) dawn, high noon and night? That makes the discerning, wise, mindful of the accomplishments/triumph (in the future age of the gods.)

Per the ancient commentary areθ “accomplishment, fulfillment, success” refers to the coming saôšiiánt and the future age of the victorious Immortals in an eternal spring.

Avestan Spring Celebrations start with bonfires few nights before the equinox. Bonfires are in honor of the departed souls. People dress in costumes, and go door to door for treats while wearing masks. This ritual is very similar to Halloween.

Nauvrooz table is adorned with sprouted lentils, colored eggs, hyacinth flower, apples, mirror, fire, sacred rue (incense,) wine, milk, bread, coins and sweets.

The table shall symbolically reflect the physical creation of the 7 foremost brilliant Immortals, called speñtá “auspicious, sacred, bright” in the Avestan. Hence, each symbolic item on the nauv rooz table item must start with the letter S.

I shall conclude by stating that the Roman Pagan New Year also started in spring season. The name of the months October, November, December respectively meaning 8th, 9th and 10th months point to a new year starting in march or in spring.

ardeshir

Posted in Uncategorized | 2 Comments

Eire, Ireland and Iran “land of the noble ones”


In Indo-European Poetry and Myths page 142, M.L. West points out that the both the name Iran (Airan) and Irish Eire coming from Aire “a noble lord,” developed from the same root as the Zoroastrian Airyaman or literally “Aryan-ness,” the divine principal of “honor, goodness, virtue, and nobility.”

West mentions other cognates with the Zoroastrian Airyaman in other Indo-European languages including the other name/title of Odin Iormunr, the Irish Eremon, and the Old English Eormencyn “noble, mighty race.”

The poetic gathas of prophet Zarathustra start with the “will to become godlike” ahü vairyö and concludes with airyemá išyö “the noble lordship or higher ideal.”

The xarənah or farnah “fiery splendor/fortune” that created the worlds in the Avesta, is coupled with airyanąm xarənö “fiery glory of the Aryans,” and the luminous vision daæná of the Zoroastrian religion that will again make the creations frašö “splendid, new, excellent” in an eternal spring.

In the Avestan lore Airya is an ethnic epithet and contrasts with other ethnic groups such as Tüirya, Sairima, Dāha, Sāinu, and with the outer world of the AnAirya “non-Aryans.”

Old Persian ariya– occurs in the phrase of Darius the Great: ariyaariyaciça, “Arya, of Aryan origin,” and of Xerxes: pārsa:pārsahyāpuçaariyaariyaciça, “a Persian, son of a Persian, Arya, of Aryan origin.”

The phrase with ciça, “descent, ancestry, and roots” assures that the term arya is an ethnic designation wider in meaning than parsá, and not a simple adjectival epithet.

The ancient native Elamites have preserved the gloss to the name of the supreme god Ahûrá Mazdá in DB 4.89 Behistun 62: u-ra-mas-da na-ap har-ri-ia-na-um, “Ahûrá Mazdá, god of the Aryans.

Kava Hû-sravö of “good glory” is called arša airyanąm “the bull/champion (aršan– “male”) of the Aryas, in Yašt. 15.32, of the Avesta.

The all noble/Aryan forest called vīspe.aire.razuraya  (Yt. 15.32) was where Hû-sravö of “good repute” slew the evil, lower wind.

Avestan erešö or araš “bear man” is the archer of the Aryans in the Avesta. The Tri-star hymn states that like the mind-swift arrow which the archer erešö shot, swift-arrowed, most swift-arrowed of the Aryas, from Mount Airyö-xšuθa to Mount Xvanvant.” yaθa tiγriš mainya-asǡ yim aŋhaṱ ərəxšō xšviwi.išuš xšviwi.išvatəmō airyanąm airyō.xsuθaṱ hača garōiṱ x anvantəm avi gairīm

The airyanąm dahyunąm “lands of the Aryans” in the Avesta contrasts with anairya– “non-Arya lands” anairyǡ diŋhāvō. This dichotomy is continued later in Persian Zoroastrian tradition. Airyö.šayana– “dwelling of the Aryans” is also another recurring term in the Avesta.

airyanəm vaēǰō “cradle of the Aryans” is the first/most pristine of all the beautiful lands created by Ahûrá Mazdá (Vidēvdāt 1.3) and is the birth place of Prophet Zarathustra, the term is frequented in Zoroastrian apocalyptic literature, and in connection with the coming eternal spring.

The holy Denkart, the great encyclopedia of Zoroastrianism associates arya– “honorable, Aryan” with good, healthy lineage/birth among mortals” hû-töhmaktom ēr martöm. This phrase in holy Denkart compares with ariya-čiça in the Old Persian Inscriptions.

Similarly ērīh ut dahyupatīh “honor and lordship,” contrasts with arg ut bār hač škōhišn, “labor and burdens from poverty” in holy Denkart.

I shall conclude by stating that both Ireland and Iran refer to the “land of the Noble Ones” and harken back to the ancient Indo European forgotten past. To an age when the land was sacred, and a mighty noble people endeavored to re-create Asgard here on earth through “goodness, honor and virtue.”

ardeshir

Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment

Divine kingship and Philosopher kings of the ancient Aryans


Kayánid in the ancient Iranian sacred tradition were a dynasty of “visionary leaders” who governed and ruled over the Aryans before their entry into the world stage as the greatest Empire of the ancient world.

Kayánid is the plural of Kay, and comes from the Avestan kavá “priest ruler” or “philosopher king.” Kaváis were great rulers/kings renowned for their gift of foresight/vision. They were the great leaders/kings of men in the Avestan lore.

Avestan kavá goes back to proto Indo European speech, and is rooted in the reconstructed Indo European *keuh “to perceive.” It comes in the same sense of “perceive, having visions of ” in the poetic gathas, See Yasna 33.6, 1st rhymed verse line.

Kavá is a cognate of Vedic kaví Lydian kawe “visionary poet/priest,” Latin cavaeō “take heed” Old Church Slavonic čujo “note,” čudo “wonder,” Old English hāwian “look at.”

Avestan kavá– has a perfect identical cognate in Lydian kawe-, making it not only Indo-European, but Proto-Indo-European, (See Didier Calin.)

In the Rig Veda, the term kaví refers to poets and priests, and is also a term applied to the gods, gift of foresight and visions. The kavís compose their poetry by the power of their thoughts mati and send their “poetic visions” dhī into the divine world.

In the Avesta, the kaváis were entrusted with the guardianship of xarənah or farnah. Farnah means “fiery splendor, divine luminosity, god energy.” Farnah represents a link between the energy of light/blazing fire in connection with kingship and the life force.

Farnah or xarənah comes from a Scytho-Sarmatian and Alan background, and is a cognate of Ossetic farnä and farn “a magic force or power of fiery nature.”

The Avestan Yashts talk of the fiery splendor of kaváis (kavaæm xarənö), of the fiery splendor of the Aryans (airyanəm or airyanąm xarənö) and farnah the fiery splendor of daæná, the “luminous vision” of the Immortals or the Zoroastrian religion.

In the Avestan lore and the poetic gathas, most of the kaváis have forsaken their gift of foresight, their wondrous, superior wisdom/craft ḵratü, and have gone over to the realm of darkness, greed and corrupted power.

However, FEW have stayed faithful/true to the farnah or xarənah of the noble ones and the luminous vision of Immortals such as Kavá Vištáspö, who was the great patron of the Aryan Prophet Zarathûštrá, and whose name comes in connection with the Magian fellowship and dominion/kingship in the gathas, See Yasna 51.16, 1st rhymed verse line.

 In the beautiful Yašt 19 of the Avesta, the farnah or xarənah of the kaváis is closely associated with cosmic order, new dawn/day and the fresh creation of the worlds, faršö kereitî.

This fiery energy that belonged/belongs to Ahûrá Mazdá, his Auspicious, brilliant Immortals, and the yazatás or “adoreable god-beings” in both worlds when they established the creations, shall make the existence fraša splendid/new again (Yašt 19.10-24.)

According to the sacred Zoroastrian lore, Kavá Siāwaxš built the Kang castle (Kangdæž) by the fiery splendor of kaváis (kavaæm xarənö.) From the stronghold of this castle the rule of the Aryans, the victory of daæna Zoroastrian religion or “luminous vision” of the Immortals will be commanded at the end of times, before the setting in of an eternal spring, and the fresh, new age of the god-men.

ardeshir

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Avestan xšnu, Greek xenos and extending goodness toward disguised divinity


In the poetic gathas of the ancient Aryan prophet, and the Avestan sacred lore a recurring term is xšnû or ḵšnû “ to delight, be congenial, well disposed, be good natured.”

Avestan xšnû is about “reciprocating, and corresponding to the brilliant and well disposed nature” of the supreme god Ahûrá Mazdá, his brilliant, wise immortals, and the soul of the primordial cow géuš ûrvá, as the personification of all life in the universe. The term also appears in relation to ties of reciprocity/generosity between mortals.

Many Avestan Prayers and formulas start with the phrase xšnaôthra ahûrahæ mazdáv “May we delight, mirror your good, brilliant disposition Ahura Mazda.

Avestan xšnû is a cognate of Greek xénos “extending hospitality to guest/strangers.” The Greek theme Theo-xenia or Theo-xeny however is closest to the Avestan original. The concept is that of extending “goodness, virtue, hospitality” towards a stranger/guest xénos, who turns out to be a disguised deity theos.

Xenía “guest-friendship” is centralized around the divine and both the disguised divinity as xénos “guest” and the host are bound by the ties of reciprocity. Gods, taking the likeness of strangers from elsewhere and assuming every kind of aspect, go from one community to another, monitoring men’s vile or virtuous conduct’ (Od. 17. 485–7.)

Several Greek and Roman myths tell how a god, or two or three gods together, travelled about and received hospitality from someone who did not know what they were and who impressed them with his goodness and virtue, or his/her lack of it. Animals such as dogs are better than humans at sensing the presence of gods and spirits. But a human being may be temporarily granted the special kind of vision that enables him to see the gods in their true form and know them for what they are.

In Nordic mythology Odin goes about similarly, accompanied by Loki and Hœnir.

The Trojan War described in the Iliad of Homer actually resulted from a violation of xenia. Paris, from the house of Priam of Troy, was a guest of Menelaus, king of Mycenaean Sparta, but seriously transgressed the bounds of xenia by abducting his host’s wife, Helen.

Avestan xšnû has remarkably survived almost intact in modern Persian in the form of xšnud “happy, delighted.”

The implication of the term xšnû in Zoroastrianism is to celebrate the world as an inherent potential for becoming divine.

Godhood in Zoroastrianism is not about a supremely powerful anthropomorphic being, but about “the eternal quest for excellence” manifested in the wonderful order and ingenuity of all that exists.

Godhood is the odyssey of consciousness and the evolution of Mind Power Mazdá. The Immortals personify the “overcoming of limitations” and the “discovery of new horizons.”

The way to adore the Gods in Zoroastrianism is to emulate/reciprocate their brilliant nature, good disposition and their virtues.

 

ardeshir

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment