Rune fehu, Aveatan fšü, pasu and the celebration of wealth, prosperity in Zoroastrianism

The first rune in the ancient Germanic alphabet is fehu literally “herds and flocks.” Fehu is the rune of “wealth” and moveable property.

Avestan fšü/pasuu, Gothic faihu, Old Norse fe, Old High German fihu, Latin pecu/pecus and Lithuanian pekus/pekas are all cognates, (See Dictionary of Indo European Poetic and Religious Themes by Didier Calin.)

Cattle and domesticated animals were of great importance to the ancient Indo-European pastoralists, and provided them with a ready point of reference in many aspects of life. The English word fee is a reminder of payment in the form of herds and flocks.

It is therefore not surprising that we find the semantic transition in the ancient Indo European society from “herds, flocks” to “moveable wealth” and “affluence, prosperity, abundance.”

Unlike some faiths, in which poverty is viewed as virtuous and desirable, Zoroastrianism has always viewed poverty and misery, most negatively. Instead prosperity, health and triumph of the spirit define the Zoroastrian faith.

Mazdyasná (The worship of Mazdá, “wisdom, learning, discovery,”) insists that man should have a powerful impact on time and destiny. Gathas or the songs of the ancient prophet Zarathustra teach that the more a man seeks to rise into the heights of heavens and light, the deeper shall his roots grow into this good earth.

Hence, in Zoroastrianism, a true embrace of the spiritual horizons is only possible when we are firmly centered in the material.

In Yasna 31.10 of the poetic gathas, “the virtuous ahûrá/god is the cultivator, bringer of prosperity to brilliant disposition, good energy/mind ahûrem ašavanem//vaηhéuš fšéñg.hîm man.aη.

Here the word fšéñg.hîm alludes to “increase, prosperity wealth and affluence” of good energy/mind. Likewise, in the ancient Indo European poetics, a god or ruler is a cultivator, increaser of wealth, a herdsman who guides and empowers.

Theodor Benfey first observed in 1872, that “giver of good things” is the common term for “god” in ancient Iran and the pagan Slavonic countries. This can be inferred from the word for god dátár meaning “dispenser, giver” in the Zoroastrian sacred lore. In Zoroastrian prayers the invocation of dátár ahûrmazd is very common.

Another interesting Avestan term associated with “herds, flocks, affluence,” is pasuu vîrá. The Avestan term can be compared with the Anglo Saxon werewolf “man-wolf.” However, the Avestan hero vîrá, (Anglo Saxon were) is not characterized by bloodthirsty violence. Rather the real hero embodies “prosperity, wealth, the stewardship of animals, and cultivation of the land.”

In the poetic gathas, Zarathustra wants vastriiö fšüiiantö “herders of flocks and cultivators of the fields” to function at the same time as both warriors and priests. In Zarathustra’s vision rise into the heights of spirituality means an embrace of the physical and stewardship of the material creation.

The seer/prophet of the ancient Indo Europeans envisions a noble aristocracy that cultivates this good earth, is a steward of animals and creation, is a fierce warrior, defender of deep roots, and learned keeper of eternal flame.


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The worship of waters in Zoroastrianism, the fiery grandson/nephew of waters apam napát, and the kinsman of the sea sævar niðr in Norse Mythology,

October 26 marks the festival of waters in the Zoroastrian religious calendar. Zoroastrianism could justly be termed ancient worship of pure, undefiled waters as well as worship of lights and sacred fires.

The Avestan term for Water is áp or ápö, (Compare Hittite hāpa, Lithuanian upė, Latvian upe “moving waters, river,” and Old Irish ab, Modern Persian áb “water.”)

Making the offering of “pure, undefiled” waters is the culminating rite of the main Zoroastrian act of worship, the yasná ceremony, (literally “yearning, desire, Greek zelós is a cognate.”)

At the heart of the rituals of the second part of the yasná is consecrating the holy water that is prayed upon/invoked (Avestan apæ zaôθra.)

The ancient belief is that waters, which give vitality to all living things, make the act of longing, worship “much more powerful and purer.”

The use of holy water in libations has continued in Zoroastrianism up to the present. Prayed upon waters is poured on the sacred ground, before or at the beginning of acts of worship.

In Zoroastrian religion, water should never be drawn from well or river/stream during hours of darkness, nor can holy water, ever be offered during nighttime.

In Zarathustra’s poetic gathas, waters are associated with “healing, wholeness” haurvatát (Greek hólos “whole.”) In the Old Avestan Yasna Haptaŋhāiti (Yasna 38.3,) the waters are venerated as ahûránî, “goddesses.”

In the Avestan lore, the concept of waters tends to merge with that of “tri star” tištriiá, “the mighty lady of the undefiled waters, arədvî sürá anahitá and the fiery descendant/nephew of waters apam napát.

Apam napát is a splendid god figure ahûrá in the depths of waters. The first part of the name apam relates to “flowing waters,” while napát refers to “descendant, nephew of,” thus the “kin, nephew of the waters.”

Napát is a cognate of Lithuanian nepoutìs, Latin nepōs, Old High German nefo “descendant, nephew.” Also Old Irish nai “descendant” and modern Persian niyá “descendant, navæ “grandchild” come from the same root.

In the most sacred yasná liturgy, waters are repeatedly invoked with apąm napát. In the religious divisions of the day, the morning is set under the protection of Mithra, while the sunset/afternoon under that of Apąm Napát.

Still today, when a Zoroastrian says the prayers proper to the watch of sunset uzærîn gáh, he/she calls upon the fiery descendant of waters, apąm napát.

The epithet of apąm napát is bərəzantəm ahûrəm, the “lofty, high ahûrá or god-being.” (Avestan bərəz “lofty” is a cognate of German berg “mountain, hill.”)

In the Avestan hymns or Yašts (Yt. 19.52,) follows a magnificent verse in honor of apąm napát:

“We worship the lofty god/lord (bərəzantəm ahûrəm), regal, shining, Son of the Waters, who has swift horses, the hero who gives help when called upon. (It is) he who created men, he who shaped men, (yö nərə̄uš dadha, yö nərə̄uš tataša) the god amid the waters, who being prayed to is swiftest of all to hear.”

The chief duty of apąm napát is to watch over the “divine glory or fiery luminous halo” (xarənah or farnæ) that he safeguards in the depths of seas/waters for the Aryans (Yt. 19. 51–64.)

There exists a close relationship here between the “fiery luminous halo of good fortune” (xarənah or farnæ) and apąm napát “the brilliant descendant of the waters” himself. He is somehow a form of light/fire, but not synonymous with fire. “The abode of the “adorable high god” yazad bôrz (as he is so called in the middle Iranian) is there where are the undefiled waters.

In the Greek mythology, the dive for the gleaming gold ring, as the concrete symbol of Minos’ sovereignty, has an analog in the Avestan account of the Turanian warrior Fraŋrasyan (Persian Afrásiyáb) who dived three times into the “wide shored sea” vôurû.kaša in a misguided attempt to rob the fiery luminous halo or the divine glory of xarənah or farnæ of the Aryans.

The old Armenian poem about the birth of the hero vahagn may preserve another reflex of the motif of the fiery god figure in the waters.

Finally, in Old Norse appears the phrase sævar niðr “descendant of the sea” as a kenning for fire (Ynglingatal 4. 3). The Norse kenning derives ultimately from a sacral formula of Indo-European hymnal poetry, based on a cosmological myth with many parallels to Avestan apąm napát.


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The ancestor of Thinking Man, Avestan Manuš, Ancient Germanic Mannus, and the Rune Mannaz

In the Zoroastrian sacred lore, Manûš is the ancestor of “thinkers, sages, and the wise, learned scholars”. The Magi priests of the ancient Aryans (or specifically the Indo Iranians) trace their “lineage/ancestry” to Manûš.

The earthly prototype for Mazdá, “the supreme god of mind, memory discovery and learning,” are the learned wise, brilliant thinkers with highly developed mind powers “man-.”

Manûš-čiθra represents the seed of Manûš, manifested in “thinkers, sages and scholar priests.” Avestan čiθra– denotes “light and ancestral lineage.”

Avestan čiθra or čithra “manifest, apparent, brilliant, shining” is a cognate of Vedic citrá, Old High German heitar“ bright, shining,” and Old Norse heiar “honor, rank.”

Examples of čiθra as “light, brightness, and ancestral lineage” may be seen in the proclamations of Darius and Xerxes to be ariya(-)ciča– “of Aryan light/lineage,” and Ardeshir I, Shāpūr I, and Narseh’s declarations to be “of the line/light of the hallowed gods” kē čihr az yazdān.

The oldest trace of the name Manuš-čiθra denoting ancestry from Manûš, is found in the Avestan hymn of Fravardin Yašt, where the archetype (fravaši) of Manuš-čiθra son of Airya is venerated (Yašt 13.131.) We hallow, hail the archetype (fra-vaši,) of the virtuous Manûš čiθra, son of Airyá: Manûš čiθrahæ airyávahæ ašaônö fravašîm yaza.maidæ.

Airyá “honorable, noble” is the ancestral father of Indo Iranians. Airyá and his two brothers ruled over three realms of this earth. But it was the specific destiny of the descendants of Airyá (Middle Persian Ērič, Modern Persian Iraj) to rule over all the realms as “warrior priests and philosopher kings.”

The Indo Iranians and the ancient Germanic tribes shared a tradition about a “first king,” who divided the world among his three sons.

In ancient Iran, we have the case of the “first physician, healer sage” called thraætaôna, his three sons Airya with his two other brothers, who each ruled over a third of this earth. Thraætaôna literally means “the third, thrice, extremely lucky.”

The ancient Germans also had a similar legend recounted in Tacitus, Germania 2.2. They relate that the ancestor of the Germans, called Mannus, divided the Germanic world between his three sons, who became the eponyms of the three main Germanic nations: Ingaevones (north), Herminones (middle), and Istaevones (south).

Herodotus (4.5-6) attests the ORIGINS legend of the ancient Scythians. Accordingly, their first king begot three sons; the oldest was Lipoxais, the middle Arpoxais, and the youngest Colaxais. They ruled for some time; but, when divine fortune favored Colaxais, the elder brothers made over the whole kingdom of Scythia to him. From these three sprang all of the Scythians. From Colaxais sprang the Royal Scythians or Paralatae.

In the legend, the surname of the Royal Scythians, Paralatae, is the same as the Primordial dynasty of Paraδāta, the first and most preeminent dynasty of ancient Persian mythology. Paraδāta literally means “Primeval law (givers).” It is from this venerable and ancient house of Paraδāta that Airyá and Manuš-čithra hail from.

Manûš of the Avesta is a cognate of Mannus “the ancestor figure of the ancient Germanic tribes,” and rune mannaz of the ancient Norsemen.

A Norwegian rune poem states: Maðr er moldar auki//
mikil er græip á hauki. “Man is growth of the earth; great is the hawk’s claw.”

In the Zoroastrian sacred lore, Manûš represents the unleashing of the powers of man– “spirit/mind,” our ancestral connection to the Immortal Gods, the potential of man to overcome himself, and become of the same “brightness, light” as the race of the hallowed gods” kē čihr az yazdān.


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Ahura Mazda, the supreme god of Zoroastrianism, the God of “learning, wisdom, discovery, and memory”

Mazdá Ahûrá is the Supreme God of ancient Zoroastrianism. The ancient Aryan Prophet Zarathustra called his Supreme God Mazdá Ahûrá “the god of learning, wisdom, discovery, imagination, mind, memory” or the “Mindful Ahûrá.”

Mazdá Ahûrá of the Old Avestan lore has become Ahûrá Mazdá in later Young Avestan literature. The earliest reference to Ahura Mazda in archaeological records appears to be in an Assyrian text, probably of the 8th century B. C. E, in which assara mazaaš is named in a list of foreign (Indo European or ancient Aryan) Gods.

The reference to Ahura Mazda in the Assyrian document suggests that by 8th century B.C.E, Zoroastrianism in its later Young Avestan form was prevalent in Western Iranian plateau, and was well known to powerful foreign powers/nations such as Assyria and Babylonia.

The Supreme God of Prophet Zarathustra Mazdá and/or Ma(n)zdá (*mensdheh-) incorporates the Indo European noun *mens of the stem ménos “mind-force, passion, spirit, will power, determination, resolve” and the verb dheh “to set, establish, do, create.”

Mazdá is thus “power of the spirit/mind to establish, create; passion to learn, discover and innovate.”

Avestan Mazdá “creativity through power of mind, imagination” is a cognate of Old Norse munda “strive for aim,” Welsh mynnu “intention, aim,” Old High English muntrī “passion, zeal,” German münther “lively, passionate,” Gothic mundōn “be mindful of” Lithuanian mañdras “lively, awake, mindful,” Latvian muôdrs “awaken, lively, passionate,” Old Church Slavonic módró “wise, and Vedic medhā “wisdom.”

The root *mensdheh “inspiring creativity, power of mind, imagination, vision to create” also appears in the following poems in the gathas/sacred songs:

Yasna 28.4: mén gairæ vôhü dadæ hathrá man.aη.há,

Yasna 31.5, mén-čá daidiiái,

Yasna 44.8, mén daidiiái,

Yasna 45.1, ma(n)z.dáv. aη..düm,

Yasna 53.5, ménčáî mánz.daz.düm.

While the etymology of Mazdá is closest to the Inspiring Muses in Greek mythology, yet Germanic or Old Norse Wōđan and/or Óðinn as God of “learning, wisdom” is the closest, if not identical to Mazdá of ancient Zoroastrianism in both the idea and intention.

The Old Avestan gathic formula mazdávs.čá ahûráη “mazda and his ahuras,” reminds one of the Old Norse Skáldskaparmál 41: Óðni ok öllum ásum “to Odin and all the æsir,” Skáldskaparmál 23: Óðins ok ása “of Odin and the aesir,” Hávamál 143: Óðinn með ásum “Odin with the Æsir,” also Baldr” Gylfaginning 49: Baldrs ok asana, (See Didier Calin, Dictionary of Indo European Poetic and Religious Themes page 139.)

I shall add that ahûrás “the original god-powers-forces” and æsir are cognates.

Edison called his first light bulb Mazda, after the “God of light, discovery” of ancient Zoroastrianism. Also, Matsuda the owner of Mazda Company like many other Japanese was fascinated with ancient Persian mythology. He named his cars Mazda instead of Matsuda.


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The dominion of the Gods, rich pastures, and the oppressed tillers of the land in the Gathas of Zarathustra

The ancient Zoroastrian spirituality is unequivocally linked to agriculture, animal stewardship, and a celebration of the purity/bounty of nature expressed in the key agricultural festivals of the year.

The most sacred mantra in Zoroastrianism, ahü vairyö “will to become godlike,” states: that the “ahûric dominion or kingship of the Immortal Gods, will be given to those who strengthen/empower the downtrodden tillers of the land,” ḵšaθrem.čá ahûrái á//ýim drigû.byö da.dat vástárem.

Ahûrás are the “Original Immortal Gods of “creative artistry and cosmic order.” The term ahûrás is cognate with Old Norse æsir (plural) and Old Norse óss (singular.)

It is the ahûric dominion or kingship of the Immortal Gods ḵšaθrem.čá ahûrái á, that shall go to those who empower/restore the drigû.byö.

Because Zoroastrian spirituality is so inextricably linked to agriculture and animal stewardship, it is not difficult to understand how terms such as vástár and drigû in the sacred gathic verse, are associated with “rich pastures” and “tyrannized cultivators/growers of the land.”

​The term drigû is unique to ancient Indo Iranian, and it is the case that because some words are elsewhere unattested, the precise meanings of those very words are not exactly certain. Drigû is one such term.

The Old Avestan term drigû conveys the idea of “toil, hard labor, drudgery,” and refers to “the downtrodden, the oppressed cultivators, tillers, farmers and growers of the land who are subjected to the tyranny of the despot lords.”

Prophet Zarathustra imposed an “order of farming nobility” based on “love of animals, stewardship of the land, and fondness for all things that grow, and are fruitful.” This order of Zoroastrian “farming nobility” was opposed by “cattle-raiding warrior bands,” who designated their leaders as Adhrigu “lord,” (he who is NOT drigû).

These “warrior bands” called themselves also “man-wolves,” and mixed blood of the sacrificed cows with sacred mead/wine, in their orgiastic rites. Their cruelty toward innocent animals, and their bloody bovine sacrifices, were especially appalling to the ancient Aryan Seer/Prophet.

It shall be added that in the Vedic Mythology, Marutas, a “band of young warriors,” were Indra‘s shock troops who called Indra their “chief, lord,” Adhrigu (he who is NOT drigû.)

 (See Mircea Eliade A History Of Religious Ideas From The Stone Age To The Eleusinian Mysteries page 305.)

While Avestan drigû is UNIQUE to ancient Indo Iranian, and there exists NO apparent etymological connections, yet definite correspondences to the vocabulary for “warrior bands” in ancient Germanic can be made.

In ancient Germanic military vocabulary, Gothic driugan, meant to “serve as soldier,” Old Norse drjúg “to endure much hardship.” Old Norse drÿgja conveyed the idea of “carry, haul, drag with effort and force,” Old Norse drōttin was the word for the “the warrior elites, the lords,” as well as the Old English dryhten “chief, lord.”

The term drigû “comes 2 more times in the “hymns/songs” of Zarathustra, the gathas. We read in Yasna 34.5: “Through excellence, truth, and good mind or brilliant disposition//give shelter, protection to your downtrodden tillers of the land,” ašá vôhü man.aηhá//θrá.yöi.dyái drigüm ýüšmákem.

And finally the very last verse of the gathas states: “That kingship or dominion, Mindful lord, is Thine, whereby to the right living tillers of the land, is given the better, more excellent,” tat mazdá tavá ḵšaθrem ýá ereže.jyöi dáhî drigaôvæ vahyö.

The kingship or dominion of the Splendid Immortals shall be given to vástár who EMPOWER/STRENGTHEN the oppressed farming nobility drigû.

The Avestan word vástár refers to “rich pastures” originally, and is a term associated with “cause to feed, nourish, nurse, restore, strengthen, empower, and encourage the growth of.”

Avestan word vástár is cognate with Old Norse vist “food,” Gothic wisan “feast, cause to graze,” Gothic wizōn “indulge,” Latvian vesels “healthy, whole,” Old Church Slavonic, veselū “joyful,” Hittite wesi “pasture,” Hittite westara “herdsman.” The reconstructed Indo European root is *wes.

The ancient Indo-Europeans were pastoralists, and it was pleasant to imagine their “rich pasturelands” as symbols of “restoration, and renewed strength.”

For example a Hittite farewell ritual for a king included the prayer: Now, O Sun-god, confirm him in possession of this pasture! Let no one take it away from him (or) contest it legally! May oxen, sheep, horses, and mules graze for him on this pasture!

“Go to the meadow/pasture” was a Hittite expression for the blessed afterlife. Odysseus in Odyssey 11 sees the dead Achilles and Heracles going about in a bountiful pasture. The Latvian righteous dead are also imagined as having their herds in “rich pastures.”

Ancient Zoroastrianism has always maintained that it has NOT reformed anything, but RESTORED the pristine faith of the Aryans to its original purity, that is the celebration of the primordial ahûrás of the “cosmic order, ancient wisdom and virtue.”

Zoroastrianism, ancient or modern, ABHORS all forms of asceticism and poverty. It is a faith that celebrates the EMPOWERMENT of the oppressed farming nobility, the gentle gardeners of this good earth, and stewards of creation. It is to the very those who shall go the kingdom of the Gods.


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Rune Othala and Inheriting the Brilliant Nature, Good Mind of the Gods in Zoroastrianism

In the Elder Futhark symbolism of the ancient Vikings, Othala rune represented the o sound. Othala disappeared from the Scandinavian record around the 6th century, but it survived in the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, and expressed the Old English œ.

Viking rune *ōþalą has become ēðel in Old English and uodal in Old High German.
The mystical and magical Rune alphabet starts with fehu, (Avestan fšü) “wealth, prosperity, cattle,” and concludes with *ōþalą “heritage; inheritance, legacy.”

The word ōþalą itself appears to be unique to ancient Germanic, and cannot be traced back to the ancient Aryan/Indo European speech.

However, the concept of “heritage/good lineage,” and the continuation of a sacred legacy going back to the beginning, is strongly present in the poetic gathas of prophet Zarathustra, as well as in the prose and poetry of the sacred Avestan lore of the Zoroastrians.

The Gathic/Old Avestan word for “good genus” is hû-zéntuš, and it appears many times in the gáthás or “sacred songs” of the ancient seer/prophet.

The term for “heritage/inheritance” in the gathas is raæna from the root *rik. Vedic reknas is a cognate. The reconstructed Proto Indo European root is *leik. Avestan raæna recalls the Germanic noun lehan in the sense of “loan,” that is the “spiritual legacy/advantage” that is LOANED to us, and must be paid back with increase and betterment.

 Othala represents god-powers and sacred knowledge from past generations, as well as realization of paradise here on this earth.

The ultimate realization of Othala as the final rune of the cycle is the coming age of god-men. In that respect, there exist many parallels with the Zoroastrian saôšiiants “giants of the ages.” Saôšiiant literally means to “swell with power of the gods and good fortune,” and heralds in a new age of god men.

Saôšiiánt stems from the verbal root √ “to swell with power, divine strength,” Welsh cawr “Giant”, Lithuanian šaūnas “robust, strong,” and Old Norse hūnn “young, strong” are cognates.

In the poetic gathas (Lithuanian giedóti “sing hymns”) concerning heritage/legacy (raæna, Germanic lehan) we read in Yasna 34.7:

kûθrá töi aredrá mazdá//ýöi vaηhéuš vaædená man.aη

séñg.hüš raæe.náv aspen.čît sádrá.čît//caraiiö ûši.ûrü

naæ.čîm tém aniiém ýüš.mat vaædá//ašá aθá-náv θráž.düm

Where are Thy “fit, strong ones” Mindful lord//who acquiring the wisdom of the Good Mind’s

Edicts and Legacy, can turn any inauspicious event, even sorrow, grief //into wide and beaming smile

I know none other than you// through Excellence, Truth; shelter us.

The word for the “fit/strong ones” is aredrá in the original Avestan. Modern translators have mostly translated this word as “ardent.” Yet as Helmut Humbach suggests the term comes from areta “order, fitness, strength,” (Old Norse einarðr is a cognate.)

The term aredrá seems to refer to astvat ereta “embodiment in flesh of the cosmic order, fitness, and divine strength.” Astvat ereta is another name for the future saôšiiant who will rise from a sacred lake, and herald in a fresh, new, resplendent universe, the new age of god-men.

Our true legacy is to inherit the “Good Mind of the Gods” vaηhéuš man.aη. Menes is the “energy of consciousness, passion of the spirit, mind power” that enables the warrior to achieve great deeds. Avestan vôhü, vaηhéuš represents “goodness, betterment and brilliance.”

Vaηhéuš, vásu, visieús “good, bright,” appears frequently in divine names among Indo European people e.g Gaul divine name Vesu-avus and Latin goddess Vesuna. The Germanic tribal name Visigoths “the good goths” comes from the same root.

In the Zoroastrian tradition, “Good Mind of the Gods” vaηhéuš man.aη is the protector of animals, “cattle, wealth” fšü (rune fehu is a cognate.)

Our heritage is to acquire the wisdom (vaædená) of the Gods, the Brilliant Disposition of the Immortals, and through their creative edicts, rulings (Avestan séñg.hüš, Latin censeo,) turn every inauspicious event (Avestan a-spen) and sorrow (Avestan sádrá, Old Norse hadr,) into a wide, beaming smile or opportunity.

Zoroastrianism ONLY sees godhood in “goodness, overcoming of limitations, betterment, and triumph of the spirit.”

Concerning our heritage/inheritance, we read in the Zoroastrian sacred literature: I have come from the unseen world, not from this world. I belong to the Mindful Lord who is all goodness and light, NOT to Ahriman who is a liar and a deceiver, all gloom, and full of death.

I belong to the hallowed gods (Avestan yazatás, Greek hagios,) not to demons (daævás,) to the pure, and not to the vile. I am a man, not a demon, a creature of the God of Mind whose powers are undying, infinite and pure.

My stock and lineage is from *Gayömart (primordial man.) My mother is Speñtá Ármaiti, (“auspicious contemplation and meditation,” embodied in earth), my father is the God of Inspiring Creativity (Mazdá, Greek Muses.) I belong to the Mindful lord, the Creator, and his Auspicious Immortals, NOT to the broken spirit and his host of impure demons. There is only one path and that is of excellence/truth.

I shall conclude, by stating that gayö-mart is the primordial giant, the first man from whom mankind is descended. His account is intertwined with the tale of the sole-created cow. The name gaiia-mareta means “mortal life.” In the Avesta, Gayömart is the primordial giant and beginning of this world, just as Saôšiiáns represents the end of this age, and beginning the new age of the god-men.

The Avestan account on the primordial man presents striking similarities to the Norse/Scandinavian origin myths. A. Christensen (1917, I, p. 37) preferred to reconstruct the transmission of Avestan themes to the Caucasus and from there, through the intermediation of the Ostrogoths, to the Scandinavian tribes.


I shall thank My good Friend Didier Calin on his notes on Othala

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Rune laguz, Lakes, and the powerful Giants of Ages/Lords of Time in Zoroastrianism

In the runic alphabet of the ancient Norsemen *laguz “lake,” is the rune of “psyche, spirit, soul, vast bodies of water, the rune of unfolding, revelation.”

*laguz is a cognate of Gothic *lagus, Old Norse lǫgr, Old English lagu A Norwegian rune poem states: Lögr er fællr ór fjalle foss//
en gull ero nosser.

“A waterfall is a river that falls from a mountain side// but ornaments are of gold.”

In the Arthurian legends, “The Lady of the Lake” is best known for her presentation to King Arthur of the magical sword Excalibur.

Merlin “the Druid Wiseman” met the Lady of the lake at the Fountain of Barenton, and fallen so deeply in love with her that he agreed to teach her all his mystical powers.

The lady of the Lake became Merlin’s scribe, who recorded his prophecies. Over the years, the Lady of the Lake became so powerful that her magical skills outshone even Merlin, and she imprisoned him in Glass Tower. The Lady of the Lake was eventually obliged to reclaim Excalibur when Arthur was fatally wounded, and Excalibur was hurled back to misty waters. “Lady of the Lake” was later one of the three Queens who escorted Arthur to AVALON “the isle of eternal youth.”

It is believed that the Arthurian legends show a good deal of Sarmatian and Alan (Ancient Indo Iranian) elements, and there exists some interesting parallels to the ancient Zoroastrian account of the last eschatological powerful lords of time Saôšiiánts.

In the eschatological literature and mythology of ancient Zoroastrianism “the eternal lake” Hámûn is the rising place of the Victorious Saôšiiánts “the powerful lords/giants of ages, time.

In Yašt 19.92 and in Vi.dæv.dāt 19.5 there are references to the birth of the Saôšiiánt- astvaṱ.ərəta from misty waters of this eternal lake.

Saôšiiánts stems from the verbal root √ “to swell with power, strength and prosperity.” The reconstructed Indo European root is *keuh “swell with power.” Welsh cawr “Giant”, Lithuanian šaūnas “robust, strong,” Hittite kunna “right powerful hand” and Old Norse hūnn “young, strong” are cognates with Saôšiiánt.

In Avestan Saôšiiánt corresponds to the term yavaæšü– “ever youthful/thriving.” Victorious Saôšiiánt by name he is called because he will swell with life force/power (sávaiiá) all the material existence.”

Lakes or “Vast body of Waters” are called zraiia in the Avestan. Sanskrit jráyas “vast expanse” is a cognate. Persian daryá “sea, vast body of water” is derived from Avestan zraiia.

In addition to the sacred lake Hámûn, During Sassanid times, Lake Čēčast enjoyed a great reputation for sanctity, particularly because Ādur Gušnasp, “the Imperial Victorious fire” stood on its shore.

In the Avestan sources few legends are linked with Lake Čēčast. Warrior Priest Kávi Haô-srava (Kay Ḵosrow) was said to have offered a to the “unblemished, pure lady of lakes/waters” Arədvī Sūra Anāhitā beside this lake.

In conclusion, I shall add that the most important lakes/seas in the early history of the ancient Indo Europeans were: Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Aral Sea and the Baltic Sea. The first 3 definitely fell into the central domain of the ancient Indo Iranians, and are associated with ancient Zoroastrian lore and sacred literature. The Baltic Sea clearly falls into the domain of the ancient Balts and Slavs. Yet, especially close relations found to exist between ancient Indo Iranians and Balto Slavonic tribes. Since the Balts and Slavs did not move far from the earliest recorded positions of the ancient Indo Europeans in the Pontic Caspian realms.


Special thanks to My friend Didier Calin for his notes on Rune *laguz

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