Maternal DNA of Parsi Zoroastrians of India, and interesting links to pre-islamic Iran and ancient Indo Europeans


The most recent study on the maternal DNA of the Parsi Zoroastrians of India appears in The mtDNA Landscape of the Southwestern Asian Corridor.

While close to 60% of Parsi Zoroastrians show distinctive Indian and Asian maternal lineages, with NO links to ancient Iran, over a third however show distinctive, and rare maternal haplogroups going back to ancient Indo Europeans and pre Islamic Aryan Iran.

Interestingly, the YDNA or paternal lineages of the Parsis mostly come from the Iranian Northeast and the Caspian region of Mazandaran, but these lineages seem not to go back to the Sassanid times. Instead, the make up of Parsi YDNA show clear effects of the arab invasion, and appear to go back to 400-500 years after the arab invasion or about 1000 years ago. Parsi mtDNA statistics is as follows:

M* – 54.5%

M is the single most common mtDNA haplogroup in Asia, and peaks in Japan and Tibet, where it represents on average about 70% of the maternal lineages and is prevalent in India, where it has approximately 60% frequency. This maternal lineage is NOT linked to ancient Iranians.

U4 – 13.6%

U4 is the second most prevalent maternal lineage among the Parsi Zoroastrians. It is an ancient Indo European mitochondrial haplogroup. U4 is relatively rare in modern populations except in Europe, with highest concentrations in Scandinavia and the Baltic states. Outside Europe U4 is found especially in Iran.

U4 appears to have been a relatively common lineage among Mesolithic European hunter-gatherers. It was identified in skeletons from Mesolithic Russia, Lithuania, Sweden and Germany. U4 seems to have been much more common in Northeast Europe than elsewhere. U4 correlates strongly with Y-haplogroup R1a, the distinct, marker of ancient Aryans and Indo Iranians.

Originally from Eastern Europe, these R1a/U4 populations would have crossed all Europe and survived in isolated pockets of northern Europe and the Baltic region from the Neolithic onwards.

HV* – 2.3%
H – 2.3%

Haplogroup HV is the most successful maternal lineage in Western Europe. Over half of the Western European populations descend from Haplogroup HV. Most Europeans belonging to the HV lineage descend from a branch that was renamed haplogroup H.

HV2 – 9.1%

HV2 is the earliest mutation of HV, and is my very own maternal lineage. HV2 is an extremely rare haplogroup, and the third most prevalent haplogroup among the Parsi Zoroastrians. HV2 is closely associated with ancient Scythians roaming the Caspian Pontic Steppes and the Altai mountains. The famed Siberian Ice Maiden, found in the Altai belongs to haplogroup HV2.

HV2 can be found among Iranians, kurds, balochs, in Volga-Ural region of Russia and in Slovakia. HV2’s distribution and origins seem very similar to maternal haplogroup U7.

U7 – 2.3%

U7 is considered a West Eurasian-specific mtDNA haplogroup, believed to have originated in the Black Sea area. In modern populations, U7 occurs at low frequency in the Caucasus, the western Siberian tribes, and about 10% in Iranians.

Genetic analysis of individuals associated with the Late Hallstatt culture from Baden-Württemberg Germany considered to be examples of Iron Age “princely burials” included haplogroup U7. Haplogroup U7 was found in 1200-year-old human remains (dating to around 834), in a woman believed to be from a royal clan who was buried with the Viking Oseberg Ship in Norway. However, U7 is rare among present-day ethnic Scandinavians.

T1 – 6.8%
T* – 4.5%

Haplogroups T* have been found in skeletons from late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers respectively from Russia and Sweden. Wild et al 2014 tested mtDNA samples from the Yamna culture, the presumed homeland (or Urheimat) of Proto-Indo-European speakers, and found T2a1b in the Middle Volga region and Bulgaria, and T1a both in central Ukraine and the Middle Volga.

The frequency of T1a and T2 in Yamna samples, were each 14.5%, a percentage higher than in any country today and only found in similarly high frequencies among the Udmurts of the Volga-Ural region. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia had maternal haplogroup T.

Haplogroup T is found in approximately 10% of native Europeans. It is also common among modern day Iranians.

U1 – 4.5%

Haplogroup U1 is a very ancient haplogroup, found at very low frequency throughout Europe. It is more often observed in Eastern Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus. DNA analysis of excavated remains now located at ruins of the Church of St. Augustine in Goa, India revealed the unique mtDNA subclade U1b, which is absent in India, but present in Georgia and surrounding regions.

ardeshir

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Zoroaster’s Light, German Philosopher Hegel, and the true legacy of the Achaemenid Persians


The Indo-European Imperial power and influence entered the stage of world history with Cyrus, the Great Persian Emperor of the Achaemenid dynasty. Cyrus ruled from 559 to 529 B.C.E, and founded the ancient Persian Empire. His dominion extended from Northern India to the Nile river in Egypt. The Hellenic historian Xenophon, called Cyrus the ideal ruler, and the Persian Achaemenids “brothers and sisters of the same blood” with Hellenes (Aeschylus: The Persians,Verse 185.)

Xenophon’s Cyropaedia offers a glimpse into the character of Cyrus as “the Ideal Ruler and the best form of Government.” Cyropaedia derives from Greek Kúrou paideía (Κύρου παιδεία), and means “The Education of Cyrus.” The book became a model for medieval European writers of the genre known as “mirrors for princes.”

According to the great German philosopher Hegel: the history of Zoroastrian Achaemenid Persia “constitutes strictly the beginning of world history” (p. 174).

The significance of Achaemenid Persians as the “first Historical People” (The Philosophy of History, p. 173) is expressed in the Zoroastrian religious system according to Hegel.

Hegel interprets “Zoroaster’s Light” or the Mazdean light as enabling the individual human being, together with other beings, to achieve freedom to act in as many ways as their natural propensities allow. Hegel traces a replication of the Zoroastrian antithesis between light and darkness in the political organization of the ancient Persian empire: “We find . . . [the Persian empire] consisting of a number of states, which are indeed dependent, but which have retained their own individuality, their manners, and laws . . . As Light illuminates everything—imparting to each object its peculiar vitality—so the Persian Empire extends over a multitude of nations, and leaves to each one its particular character” (p. 187).

The ancient Zoroastrian Persians, as the foremost Indo-Europeans, never forced Ahûrá Mazdá and the Brilliant Immortals on the alien people or nations. The Achaemenids per the strict admonitions of the Avesta avoided mixing up the world, robbing it of its variety/diversity, and creating chaos, (See Avestan Zamyad Yasht and many other ancient Avestan Passages.)

Zoroastrianism in essence, is about thinking in terms of unlimited horizons, and being true to our own soul, innate feelings, passions, rhythms and instincts. Zoroastrianism is and has always been a very private faith, focused on honor, valor, nobility of blood and spirit, and great dedication towards one’s own kin, and kindred-related communities and nations, called xaæt.dáθa and/or xaæt.vadaθa in the Avestan.

Xaæt.daθa or “dedication to one’s own” is a fundamental principle of Zoroastrianism, and appears in the official Zoroastrian creed formula of Yasna 12. The doctrine goes back directly to the poetic gathas of the ancient Aryan prophet, (See Yasna 53.4, 2nd and 3rd rhymed verse lines and Yasna 34.12, 3rd rhymed verse line.)

Avestan xaæt is derived from Proto Indo European *swedh-o, Vedic svadhá, Lithuanian savē, “one’s own, self.” The second part daθa implies “dedication, giving,” xaæt.daθa thus means “dedication to one’s own.”

The alternative reading xaæt.vadaθa “to give in marriage to one’s own kin or kindred groups” has an additional element vad “to wed, marry.” The Greek word éthos “inner essence, spirit, ethics” comes from the same root as Avestan xaæt.

Religion in Zoroastrianism is about the “inner essence, spirit and the core of one’s own being.” It is clear that a religiosity arising from such an attitude towards religion as the “true self” or the “real identity” can never be forced upon others or advertised as being for everyone.

The true legacy of ancient Persians was their understanding and respect for the very truth that alien people have their own indigenous religions, fitting their own distinctive temperamental rhythms and cognition. Turning them into Zoroastrians was NEVER even an option for the ancient Persians. However, for closely related peoples, ancient Persians felt that it was entirely up to them to decide whether the luminous essence of the Zoroastrian religiosity was a right fit for them or not.

One realizes to be a Zoroastrian when the “inner self” discovers that the call of his/her soul, flesh and blood, is of the same harmonious vibration as the Zoroastrian or Mazdean light.

The same rule of “individual distinctiveness” applies to Zoroastrian mode/manner of prayer. In the Zoroastrian faith, prayer is offered up in solitude and calm seclusion of the individual worshipper, and is NOT a communal rite.

Ancient Zoroastrian Iranians were very conscious and proud of their own heritage and unique distinction. This confidence in one’s own self and religious instincts, translated into a liberal attitude of “live and let live” in their interactions with other races and nations.

I like to conclude by citing Webster definition of Zeitgeist as “the general intellectual, moral, and cultural climate of an era.” In this day and age Zeitgeist is marked by “secular humanism.”

Unfortunately, ancient history is rewritten based on the dictates of secular humanism and NOT based on facts and truth. Every autumn, the annual celebrations of Cyrus the Great is held at grass roots level by hundreds of thousands, if not millions of present day Iranians. Present day Iranians fondly honor the noble legacy of the Achaemenids, and the pre-isalmic, Aryan identity of ancient Iran during these non-governmental ceremonies.

However, the former crown prince, Mr. Reza Pahlavi, in his 2016 address to celebrants declared that the Achaemenids were the first to mix all nations (????!!!!,) and warned Iranians about the perils of racial fascism verses the ruling religious fascism!!! It is apparent that the former crown prince champions the cause of “western secular humanism,” and NOT the cause of ancient Iranian and Zoroastrian values and virtues.

Truth is that Zoroastrian kingship ended with the noble Sassanid, and all other rulers or contenders to the throne/power in the past thousand years or so, were/are NO real heirs to the great Zoroastrian civilization of the ancient, mountainous land of Iran.

It is noteworthy, that Zoroastrian chronicles are absolutely silent over Cyrus, despite all his greatness and valor. Instead, Darius is honored greatly in our memory. It is so, because Cyrus offered worship to marduk, a devil-god of the alien Babylonians. Cyrus’s reasons were pragmatic and political, but No Zoroastrian may offer worship or homage to any alien devil gods. For religion in Zoroastrianism means our “true self,” and we may never betray our “true self” to alien ideals or gods for any political or pragmatic reasons.

ardeshir

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From friendship with the Immortal Gods to the stewardship of the entire Creation, and the worship of the sun, moon, fire and waters


In the Avestan calendar, the first month of autumn is named after Mithrá “friendship with the Immortal Gods. Ahûrá Mazdá, the supreme god of Zoroastrianism, is not a tyrannical despot or a jealous God, and Zoroastrian religiosity is not slavery and submission.

Zoroastrian belief is based on the reciprocal friendship/love mithrá between mortal men and Immortal Gods. Mithrá-, Mitrá– comes from the reconstructed Indo European root *meit-, and is a cognate with Lithuanian mūtō, Latvian mietot, Gothic maidjan, and Vedic metháti (Courtesy of Didier Calin.)

Reciprocating our alliance/bond with the Immortals, by fulfilling our divine destiny is the meaning of Mithrá. The sacred fires are called darmehr “door or gateway to mithrá” in Zoroastrianism, ever reminding us of our mutual bonds with, and great obligations towards the brilliant god-powers!

Zoroastrian Worship is not concerned with anxiety, or self-damnation, but with the maturing of man in the face of destiny, which mankind confronts in loving alliance/bond with the Immortals.

Hermann Lommel uses the term “religiosity of this world” to characterize the Zoroastrian religion. “Life in this world”, Lommel says, “offered the ancient Iranians unbounded possibilities for the worship of God”.

Worshipping in Zoroastrianism is stewardship of the environment, for Nature is sacred and Godhood is universally present in Cosmos. Poetic Gathas teach that mortals, as hû-zéñtûš “noble genus,” possess something godly, and as such could claim to approximate to the “Godlike ahü.”

The second and third months of autumn are accordingly named after apa “waters” and áthrá “hearth fire.” It shall also be noted that the most repeated prayers in Zoroastrianism are the Five Niyayishns, or 5 sacred hymns that are addressed to the sun, Mithrá, the moon, waters, and fire.

For in the worship of the sun, the hearth fire and the eternal flames, in the worship of mountain heights, springs, rivers, waters and trees, in the worship of every new dawn, in the worship of the good earth, and the heroic memory of the clan, God is revealed.

The ancient Zoroastrians did not conceive of temples as dwelling places for Gods, Tacitus (Germania, IX) wrote that the Teuton’s idea of the greatness of the deity did not permit them to enclose their Gods within walls. Ahura Mazda’s Creation is the real sacred space for Worship. Lord Byron’s poem best illustrates this belief:

Not vainly did the early Persian make
His altar the high places and the peak
Of earth over gazing mountains, and thus take
A fit and unwalled temple, where to seek
The spirit, in whose honour shrines are weak,
Upreared of human hands. Come, and compare
Columns and idol-dwellings, Goth or Greek,
With nature’s realms of worship, earth and air,
Nor fix on fond abodes to circumscribe thy prayer
!

Thus the sacred poetry, worship, and rituals of ancient Zoroastrianism unfolds into a multiplicity of Immortal Gods, always accompanied, however, by a clear recognition that ultimately the many Immortal Gods are only names for the different aspects of Mazdá Ahûrá.

In Zoroastrianism, Universe has a progressive direction/evolution and conscious purpose. Zoroastrianism is more than anything pantheistic, seeing Godhood in the brilliant odyssey of mind/consciousness, greater becoming and the dynamic forces in nature verses stagnation, limitation and gloom of the retarded evil.

Zoroastrian belief is a kind of Pantheist view that is very similar to the Star Wars concept of the force, and to the concept that there is a dynamic spirit of greater becoming found in all things.

ardeshir

The Avestan word for water is áp. Cognates include Old Prussian ape “river,” apus “water, well, spring,” Lithuanian ùpė “water,” Latvian upe “water,” Old Church Slavonic: (vapa), Vedic/Sanskrit āpaḥ, Tocharian āp, Hittite hapa– “river” from reconstructed Proto Indo European root *hâp-, *hap (See Didier Calin.)

Also Old Irish aub, Persian áb “water” comes from the same root.

The word for “fire” in the Avesta is áθar/áthar, also áθarš/átharš, referring to the “fires of altar and hearth.” It comes from reconstructed Proto Indo European *háhtr “hearth or altar fire,” from the root *hahs-“to burn”, and is a cognate of Hittite hâssâ “hearth fire,” (Courtesy of Didier Calin.)

The Avestan áthar is related to Czech vatra, Romanian vatrā “fire,” Latin āter “blackened by fire,” atrium “chimney, space over hearth” come from the same root, (Courtesy of Didier Calin.)

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Earliest reference to the chief god of Zoroastrianism, the god of ménos “discovery, fighting spirit, will and mind power!”


The earliest reference to Ahûrá Mazdá in ancient records appears to be in an Assyrian text, probably of the 8th century B.C.E, in which Assara Mazaš, is named in a list of Indo European gods.

The list in which the name Assara Mazaš appears, contains a number of old Aryan divinities, honored in outlying borders of the Assyrian Empire, on the peripheries of the towering Zagros mountains of Western Iran, the ancient homeland of the Medes. Professor Hommel was of the opinion that this Assara Mazaš, is Ahûrá Mazdá the chief god power of Zoroastrianism.

Interestingly, the order of Assara Mazaš corresponds to Ahûrá Mazdá of the Younger Avesta, but in the poetic gathas, or the oldest part of the Avesta, the order is reversed, and appears as Mazdá, Ahûrá.

This strongly suggests that the Zoroastrianism of the Younger Avestan period was firmly established in Western Iran before 8th century BCE, and that the Zoroastrian divinities of the Aryan Medes were well known to the Assyrians at that point in history.

The desire to push the age of Zarathustra to 600 BCE goes back directly to the VERY MISTAKEN identity of Zoroastrianism with the idea of Monotheism. Monotheism without a shadow of doubt goes back to Pharaoh Akhenaten and to ancient Judaism.

To identify Zoroastrianism with biblical monotheism is simply put wishful thinking. Zoroastrianism defines itself as Mazd-yasná “zeal, passion, fervor for Mazdá.” Yasná is a cognate of Greek word zelós and Mazdá is the supreme Ahûrá, chief god of “imagination, inspiring creativity, and mind power.”

While Zeus the chief of the Greek Gods, is a cognate with the Vedic Dyaus, which stems from the Indo-European root *dyeu-, referring to “the bright sky of the day and celestial gods,” the supremacy of Mazdá (Cognate with Greek Muses) derives from the journey and evolution of mind and consciousness.

Mazdá or Ma(n)zdá (*mens-dheh-) derives from the Indo European root *mens of the stem ménos “mind-force, will power, spirit, determination, resolve” and the verb dheh “to set, establish, do, create.” (Courtesy of Didier Calin)

Prophet Zarathustra saw Godhood NOT in superhuman celestials, but in the odyssey of consciousness, the power of spirit/mind to discover and create.”

Ahûrás in Zarathustra’s doctrine are “master artisans of ašá/arthá or the innovative cosmic order.” All the divine entities in the Zoroastrian sacred lore are animated by the creative imagination and evolving mind power that is embodied in Mazdá, who is the essence/wondrous substance of all the Immortal Gods.

There is nothing static or final about any aspects of Godhood in the poetic gathas and Zoroastrianism. Brilliant Immortals each embody the eternal quest for excellence, discovery, and new horizons of mind/consciousness.

Mazdá is the god of ménos “determination, fighting spirit, discovery, will and mind power,” the supreme ahûrá, and the well-spring of all the Immortal Gods, and evolving god-men and women!

I like to conclude by the following verse from the poetic gathas, Yasna 43.10, 2nd rhymed verse line:

ýé ãn.ménî mazdáv srávî ahûrö

In ménos “fighting spirit, discovery, will and mind power” Mazdá the Mindful Lord, is heard srávî in imperishable glory.

ardeshir

 

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Zoroastrianism, and the idea of a future body obtaining all its energy from the environment


Recently I came across a quote from Nikola Tesla stating: “My idea is that the development of life must lead to forms of existence that will be possible without nourishment and which will not be shackled by consequent limitations. Why should a living being not be able to obtain all the energy it needs for the performance of its life functions from the environment, instead of through consumption of food, and transforming, by a complicated process, the energy of chemical combinations into life-sustaining energy?”

It struck me right away, that Tesla’s idea concerning a future body obtaining all its energy from the environment, instead of through consumption of food, existed in Zoroastrianism for few thousand years earlier.

In fact, the idea goes back to the poetic gathas of Zarathustra, Yasna 30.7:

When kingship/dominion (of the god-powers) comes//with brilliant disposition, good mind, and artistry of the cosmic law

To the body kehrp, endless youthful energy ûta.yüitî //shall be given dadát, through the unbending or unshakeable, “focus of mind” ár.maitiš

ah.mái.čá šaθrá jasat//man.aηhá vôhü ašá.čá

 at kehrp.ém ûta.yüitîš//dadát ár.maitiš ãnmá

Also, in Chapter 30 of bûn-dahišn, the subject of the future body and the splendid recreation of the worlds is beautifully discussed. Bûn-dahišn, or “basis/wellspring of creation,” elaborates on many Avestan passages dealing with cosmogony. The book is in Middle Iranian. Only a translation of the Avestan original into Pahlavi “heroic speech” or middle Iranian is given. The Avestan verse is always referred to as what is revealed in daæná or “vision/power to see.” Chapter 30 of bûn-dahišn states:

  1. On the nature of the splendid renewal, and future existence, it is told in daæná (Vision/Avestan Revelation,) that Mašiiæ and Mašiiánæ (First Mortal man and woman,) grew up from the earth, and first fed upon water, then plants, then milk, and then meat. 2. Likewise, in the millennium of Ûšidar.máh, the cruel desire (áz) will diminish, when mortals will remain three days and nights full, through one taste of consecrated food. 3. Then they will altogether desist from meat, eating vegetables and milk; afterwards, they will abstain from dairy, and even vegetables, subsisting on water/light alone; and for ten years before Saöšiiánt comes, mortals do not consume food, yet do not die.

ardeshir

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Moslem designation of the Vikings as Majus or heathen Zoroastrians, and the Maga fellowship of Zarathustra


Moslem voyagers, traders, and theologians from the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties/caliphates, came into contact with the Vikings during their visits to trading centers such as Kiev and Novgorod, part of the “Volga Trade route.” Moslems appeared to have become very familiar with the Old Norse kinsfolk and their belief systems during these visits.

Moslems classified the Vikings as Majūs or “heathen Zoroastrians,” since they thought them to be very much like Zoroastrians of pre Islamic Iran/Persia.

Majūs, plural majūsī, from Greek Mágos μάγος, Latin Magus, is a term that goes back to the Avestan magá, referring to the Zoroastrian shaman warriors.

According to Ibn Rustah’s (10th century,) Vikings accorded great respect to their ‘shamans’ [attibah] who had great authority over their chieftain.

In almost all moslem accounts, reference to the Vikings starts with the phrase: “al-Majus (Vikings/Zoroastrians) May God curse them!” Moslem envoys referred to the Viking chiefs/kings as malik al-majūs, and to the Viking lands as bilād al-majūs.

Regarding Christianized Vikings, Moslem accounts state: Norse men were Majusi “Zoroastrian heathens,” but they now follow the Christian faith dīn al-naṣranīya, and have given up fire-worship and their previous religion, except for the people of a few scattered islands of theirs in the sea, where they keep to their old Majusi (Zoroastrian) faith.

Moslem accounts to the Vikings include Al-Ghazal’s (8th – 9th Century, Al-Andalus) entitled “embassy mission to the Vikings,” originated within Al-Muqtabis fi tarikh al-Andalus of Ibn Hayyan (The collected knowledge on the history of Al-Andalus.)

The most extensive account on the Vikings by Moslems is that written by Ibn Fadlan (10th Century, Baghdad.)

The notion that the Moslem classification of the Vikings as Majusi “Pagan Zoroastrians,” was simply a case of mistaken identity is highly unlikely. Majus as Zoroastrians appears many times in hadith (words ascribed to Mohammad,) and once in Quran 22.17. In fact, moslem use of the designation Majus in the new context of the Norse people, proves that they were very conscious/aware of the meaning of the term.

Prophet Zarathustra, in his poetic gathas calls his fellowship airyá “noble, honorable, Aryan,” or magá “magnificent, mighty, of masterful powers/abilities.”

Émile Benveniste believed that Avestan term magá– signified a priestly or shamanic-warrior clan among the ancient Aryans/Iranians, renowned for their “mightily powers and abilities,” (Benveniste, 1938, pp. 13, 18-20.)

Accordingly, Avestan magá is cognate with Old Church Slavonic mogo “to be able” Germanic magan, English may “enable, make possible,” Greek mekhos, all going back to the reconstructed Indo-European root *magh.

Moslems recognized early on the great similarity between the Norse beliefs and Ancient Zoroastrianism. Both Zoroastrianism and Norse beliefs go back to a common Indo-European/ancient Aryan heritage.

However, within the Indo European world, ancient Zoroastrianism and Old Norse beliefs show a much greater similarity and closer kinship to each other.

Zoroastrian and Viking apocalyptic literature are almost identical. Both frašö-kart and Ragnarök foretell a series of future events, including a great battle that ultimately will result in the splendid renewal of the god powers and the worlds. In both traditions, mortal men are the allies and friends of the Immortal gods in this impending battle.

In both, the Immortal Gods, the ahûrás and the æsir are “god beings who embody “the cosmic order, and the quest for excellence.”

Both define their faiths as steadfast allegiance to the ahûrás (ahûratkaæšö) and/or true faith in the aesir. Interestingly, neither the term ahûrá nor the æsir was ever adopted in islamic Persia or christian Scandinavia.

Both ancient Zoroastrianism and Norse accounts are characterized by an underlying duality between the “evolving, creative consciousness of the god beings, the ahûrás and the æsir,” verses the “inertia, gloom, stagnation,” of the daævás “diabolic forces” in the Avesta, and monster giants in the Eddas.

For the god-powers ignite life energy and creativity into the universe, while the anti-gods have no vital or creative energies, and are devoid of any genius or meaningful imagination in both traditions.

Odin or Óðinn like Mazdá, the supreme ahûrá Of Zoroastrianism, is the chief among the aesir. Both Mazdá and Óðinn are the “essence of godhood” present in all life forms. They both represent higher wisdom and the odyssey, progress of consciousness/mind power, and are not static, but eternally evolving and perfecting themselves.

Odin’s discovery of the runes of wisdom in “nine days and nights,” is identical to the Zoroastrian purification and pondering period of 9 days and nights for the Zoroastrian priests.

While Mazdá is etymologically related to Greek Muses “Inspirational sources of creativity, knowledge and wisdom,” however, among the Indo European Gods, Mazdá is undoubtedly the closest to/identical to Óðinn.

Óðinn in the sense of “sacred vision and shamanic wisdom” is derived from the root wōthuz, a cognate of Old Church Slavonic aviti and Avestan vaiti. 

 The root vaiti appears in the poetic gathas in Yasna 44.18, 4th rhymed verse line in the sense of “having insight, sacred vision of wholeness, healing powers.”

 The root vaiti comes again in the form of vátö in the gahic Yasnna 35.6, and in the form of váté in the gathic Yasna 35.7. In the younger Avesta, the root appears in Yasna 9.25 and Vendidad 9.2, 9.47, 9.52.

Last but not least, Herodotus maintained that the Magá were a hereditary priestly clan among the ancient Zoroastrians. It turns out that the very rare haplogroup I L41 or I-M170 appears in high frequency in Iran, only among some Zoroastrian Iranian priestly families, in the Caspian mountains (the last stronghold of Zoroastrianism in Iran,) and among some isolated group of mountainous Kurds. Otherwise, Haplogroup I, is found almost exclusively today in the Dinaric Alps, and in Northwestern Europe or Scandinavia.

I L41 or I-M170 is a defining SNP for haplogroup I, and contains individuals directly descended from the earliest members of Haplogroup I, bearing none of the subsequent mutations. In other words, it is Proto Old Norse and Proto South Slavic.

Before taking My genetic Natgeo2 test, I thought for sure, that I must definitely belong to haplogroup R1a, the most common haplogroup among ancient Iranians, and many Eastern and some Northern Europeans of today. It turned out that my haplogroup is I L41 or I M170 shared by 0.03 percent of all participants in the Natgeo2 project.

This genetic connection to pagan Europe, strongly suggests more than a close kinship of ideas, but old blood ties among priestly clans of ancient Zoroastrian Iran, and shamans of pagan Europe.

After all, the other common term for priests in the Avesta is āθra.van “Keeper of family hearth or flame.”

 ardeshir

In the poetic gathas, magá as the “masterly and mighty fellowship” of the seer/prophet Zarathustra, appears in the following 8 verses: Yasna 29.11, 2nd rhymed verse line as magái, Yasna 33.7, 2nd rhymed verse line as magáûnö, Yasna 46.14, 2nd rhymed verse line as magái, Yasna 51.11, 3rd rhymed verse line as magái, Yasna 51.15, 1st rhymed verse line maga.vabiiö, 51.16, 1st rhymed verse line as mag.ahiiá, Yasna 53.7 , in the 1st rhymed verse line as mag.ahiiá and in the 4th rhymed verse line as magem.

It also comes one time as a verb mi-maghžö, “to be able, empower,” in Yasna 45.10, 1st rhymed verse line.

In the Vedas Indra is repeatedly called a magavan, “possessing extraordinary abilities/powers, having great mastery.”

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The CHARIOT of TIME in the poetic gathas of Zarathustra, and Yasna 44.17


The idea that within infinite time, an finite number of events, will recur again and again infinitely, is predominant in all Indo-European religions.

There is a notion that time is composed of cycles, and that there is an eternal return or recurrence of all existence, energies and events. It follows therefore that nothing is really new, all learning is in fact memory, and that there is a heavy weight of destiny.

The ancient Aryan seer/prophet Zarathustra does NOT contradict the idea that time moves in cycles. Zarathustra is however ADAMANT that we are NOT ENCHAINED to the heavy weight of destiny.

One of the fundamental pillars of Zarathustra’s philosophy is the unshakeable belief in the unique ability of life/existence to modify itself and evolve, to transform, surpass via action/active dynamism. Zoroastrian doctrine can be summarized in realization of the will power for the purpose of “moving forward and greater becoming.”

The CREATIVE ORDER of cosmos ašá/arthá is revealed through transcending the limits, and the perpetual striving for excellence/the immortal brilliance. “Mindfulness, choice and self-overcoming evolution” define the Zoroastrian belief system. The Mazdean faith is summarized in the projection of the spirit/will power onto the existential world, time and space.

Prophet Zarathustra talks about the CHARIOT of TIME in Yasna 44.17 of his poetic gathas. The term for “the circular movement of time” is zarem čaránî. The ancient commentaries translate the term as zamán kardárî.

The gathic word for TIME, zarem comes from the root zar “grow old, ripen, mature.” Zarem has a secondary meaning of “purpose, plan, design, and goal.”

Old Avestan zar/zarem “ripen, mature, grow old,” is cognate with Young Avestan zurván “time,” Old Church Slavonic zūretĭ “ripen, mature,” Ossetian zærand “venerable, old,” Greek gérōn “old,” (Gerontology “study of aging,”) Vedic jîryati “grow old,” Tocharian śärā “mature.”

Avestan čaránî comes from čaraiti, to “circulate, travel/journey in a chariot.” The secondary meaning of “goal, purpose, plan, design” in zar, implies that the “chariot of time’s movement” zarem čaránî has a goal, purpose of “moving forward for the purpose of ever greater becoming!”

Hence, Time is the mediator of ahriman’s defeat, and the genial vehicle of the supreme god of Mind/Inspiring Creativity Mazdá, to OVERCOME flaws, limitations and imperfections of existence.

The poetic imagery in Yasna 44.17 continues with the “chariot axle” áskeitîm of all the immortal powers (šmá “You in Plural.”)

Avestan áskeitîm is cognate with Greek áksōn, Vedic ākśá, meaning “axle, axis” which evokes the ideas of “sequence, movement, and progression.” The ancient commentaries translate the term as kardárî “activity/venture.

The imagery continues in the same gathic verse with the phrase mãnθrá ýé ráθemö, the “vehicle of mantra,” and/or the “formulas that unleash the power of mind/spirit.”

Avestan raθa is cognate with Vedic rátha, Lithuanian rãtas, Old Irish roth, and Latin rota to rotate, wheel, wagon, vehicle.”

In the poetic gathas and Zoroastrianism “Cyclical Time” is not just the repetition of ages, it is rather the journey of godhood, and the adventure to “surpass, overcome, and excel.”

The Chariot of Time is an aspect of illimitable-ness of Ahûrá Mazdá, manifested in “discovery, progress, new horizons, and infinite vision/light.”

Time moves in circles, and in its travels manifests the limitless vision/wisdom of the Immortal Gods, and thereby becomes a vehicle of godhood.

In the same verse, the Aryan Prophet sings of “being büž.diiá united saröi with haûrvátá (Greek hólos,) well-being, wholeness, power to heal/regenerate, and ameretátá immortality/deathless-ness.”

saröi büž.diiái haûrvátá ameretátá.

Avestan saröi/sar “unite, mix, mingle with,” is cognate with Vedic śrīnáti, Greek kirnēmi/ krater (κρατήρ, a large wine-mixing vessel) Latin crater or cratus, and the word grail.

In Mazdean cosmogony, Time has two essential aspects: the Time without shore/the Eternal Time, and the limited time.

Eternal Time is of Öhrmazdean essence, united with the dimension of ideals/wholeness and the Immortals. Eternal Time gives to each fraction of limited time, its dimension of boundless light, and its direction and meaning.

I like to conclude with the beautiful Yasna 44.17 of the poetic gathas:

 kaθá mazdá zarem čaránî hačá šmat

 áskeitîm šmá.kãm hiiat.čá möi xva.iiát váš aæšö

saröi büž.diiái haûrvátá ameretátá

 avá mãnθrá ýé ráθemö ašát hačá

How does the chariot of time move in unison/harmony with you (in plural,) god of inspiring creativity/mind power?

Through Your (You in Plural, referring to all the Immortals,) Ventures/Journeys, my voice, revelation shall become ever more powerful,

Being allied/united with wholeness, immortality,

In the vehicle of thought-provoking formulas, advancing in accord with excellence, ašá/arthá

ardeshir

 

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