In the Avesta and the ancient Aryan, Indo-Iranian MythThritá (the THIRD,) also called Thraætóná/Θraætóná is the first skilled physician/healer. (Yasht 13.131; Vendidad 20.2).
The name comes from thri/Θri meaning “three, the THIRD.” In the Old Norse Grímnismál 46.4 Þriði/thriði is another name of Óðinn. We also read in Gylfaginning 2 “he who is uppermost is called the Third “Þriði/thriði,” (Courtesy of Didier Calin.)
The name has probably something to do with the THREE SUNS –See Indo European *tréyes s(a)uhliyōs / trih sáhwōl (Indic, Latin, Slavonic, Latvian + Greek) (Calin 96-2012.)
Avestan Thritá (the THIRD,) Thraætónáhas become Fereydoun in Persian.
The invention of medicine and the introduction of antidotes are attributed to Thritá/Thraætóná, who was also regarded as the inventor of amulets. He is able to repel the plague and other diseases and bears the epithet paúr-baæšaz, literally, “plenitude, abundance, fullness of healing” (Dādistān ī dænīg, pt. 1, p. 84.)
In the preserved fragment of one Avestan incantation, Thritá/Thraætónáis invoked against evil powers (Avesta, tr. Darmesteter, 3.2; Modi, 1900).
On a Parthian gem (probably an amulet made to serve a medical purpose,) in the Falkiner collection, London; an Iranian hero is depicted subduing a demon; it may very well represent Thritá/Thraætóná fighting a demon of severe illness (Bivar, pp. 518-23).
The popularity of Thritá/Thraætónáas a physician is also reflected in a Manichean Middle Persian incantation associated with other “names of power” (Henning, pp. 39-40).
There are a number of amulets and charms inscribed in Pahlavi, Pazand, and Persian in which Thritá/Thraætóná, the PersianFereydoun is invoked to heal diseases; some of them are still used by the Zoroastrians of Persia and India (Modi, 1894; Kanga, pp. 141-45; Boyce, Stronghold, pp. 63 ff.).
Magical powers are attributed to Thritá/Thraætóná in the Avesta (Yasht 5.61-65.) His famous mace has a bull’s head and his most brilliant feat is his victory over the three-headed, six-eyed Monster Dahāka (Yash. 5.33-35, 15.23-24; Yasna 9.7-8; Vendidad 1.18).
In the mythical style Süd-gar commentary of the poetic gathas on Yasna 51; it is accounted that following Öhrmazd’s command, Thritá/Thraætónárefrained from killing the monster dahák, lest various noxious creatures emerge from the corpse of the monster and infest the world of the living.
Thritá/Thraætóná rather fettered and imprisoned the monster on Mount Damávand (the smoky, cloud-covered mountain.) The monster dahák will remain in the smoky, cloud-covered mountain in fetters/chains until the resurrection or the brilliant renewal end of the worlds “farshö-kart.” (Holy Denkart, ed. Madan, pp. 548, 811)
The monster will then be slain by Garshássp/Garsháßp. (Pahlavi Rivayat, ed. Dhabhar, pp. 146-47).
In the mythical Süd-gar commentary of the same Yasna 51 of the poetic gathas; After Thritá/Thraætóná’s gains victory over the tyrant monster dahák (dahák is associated with Babylon and the land of sorcery or modern Iraq,) Thritá shockingly realizes that people have gotten used to the tyranny of the monster dahák and yearn for the monster’s cruelty.
Thritá/Thraætónáthen battles then the semi-monstrous foreign black people, the Māzandars. Thritá binds them to the hooves (lit., “feet”) and transforms some into stones, and expels the rest forever from the land. (See zangīg; Bundahišn, pp. 108-9; cf. Matīnī)
Like other ancient Aryan/Indo-Iranian heroes, Thraætóná (fereydoun) is identified in Islamic sources with biblical and koranic figures such as Noah, Abraham, and even Nimrod.
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