The Destructive Spirit and the Daevas in the early Gathic Avestan Worldview
John Easter 2014
Ahriman is the Middle Persian equivalent for Angra Mainyu. Angra Mainyu is from the older Gathic Avestan language of the Gathas where it means destructive/hostile spirit/mentality. Other names include Akem Mainyu(evil spirit/mentality), Debaoma(arch-deluder or deceiver), Dush-Sastish(false teacher), Aka Manah(evil mind and the opposite of Vohu Manah/loving mind), and Druj which means injurious falsehood, the opposite of Asha(truth/goodness/art), and the essence of evil in the wickedest, deepest, and un-holiest sense. Druj is cognate to Vedic Sanskrit Druh, which means injuring, injurer, hurtful, hostile, fiend, and afflicting demon. Druh is the opposite of Rta which is the Vedic Sanskrit cognate of Asha.
“The stagnated spirit of evil, consumed by “destructive lust” for and “envy” (areshk) of “the unlimited mind power” of Ahúrá Ma(n)zdá in accomplishing and realizing his luminous thoughts/visions; insinuated his malice, cruelty and frustration into the material manifestation of the Gd of Genius; inflicting it with his misery, wreck and ruin.”
-Herbad Ardeshir Farahmand, Why do bad things happen to the innocent and the good?
The evil spirit is regarded in the Poetic Gathas as the distorter and destroyer of perception, spiritual vision, creativity, artfulness, and inspired music and sounds, the perverter and marrer of the life force in beings and nature that brings disharmony, disparity, malformation, decay, and death, and the teacher and master of falsehood, aggressiveness, deceptive mind formulas and mantras, delusions, illusions, and Acishtahya Manah(House of Worst Mind/Hell). Ahriman is also called Daevanam Daeva(daeva of daevas), which means evil god of evil gods or demon of demons. The original basis behind Satan in ancient Judaism and Christianity and Iblis in Islam. Corresponds to Kali(not to be confused with the goddess; from a root kad “suffer, grieve, hurt; confound, confuse”) of Kali Yuga in Hinduism, Kroni in Ayyavazhi Hinduism, and Devaputra(son of a deva) Mara in Buddhism.
“Zoroaster’s teachings are often called dualist, explaining the universe as the result of “the outcome of two eternally opposed and coexisting principles”. However, Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu, or Ahriman, are not co-equal; the latter is an emanation or spirit of the former whose exercise of free will led him to embrace evil. This could be the source of the Christian conception of Satan as a fallen angel. Angra Mainyu is twin to Spenta Mainyu, the spirit of good that strengthens creation and aids humanity in their fight against evil.”
-Zoroaster article on New World Encyclopedia
“The root of evil as the ancient Aryan(Indo-Iranian) prophet calls it is nöit eresh vishyátá; “a desire/wish not in rhythm, a wish that violates the melody, flow of meaning, force, energy.”” “(See Yasna 30.3, 3rd rhymed verse line and Yasna 30.6, 1st rhymed verse line.)”
-Herbad Ardeshir Farahmand, Why do the bad seek out the luminous and good to corrupt?
Evil, ruin, and decay in the Poetic Gathas by Zarathushtra Spitama are associated with falsehood, cruelty, and the distortion, disharmony, and perversion of inspiration and the energy flow of the life force:
“In Yasna 31.1, 2nd rhymed verse line, death is associated with disorder, destruction of artfulness and excellence, and the rule of lies, deceptive formulas.
In Yasna 31.18, 3rd rhymed verse line, death (marakaæ) is associated with the deceiver (dregvatö,) the deceptive mind formulas (manthras) and illusive teachings of the trickster.
In Yasna 32.9, 1st rhymed verse line, death/destruction is associated with the false teacher (dúsh-sastish,) an epithet of the evil spirit, the distortion of the inspired music/melody and a corruption of the power of the spirit to manifest itself in life( jyátéush khratüm.)
In Yasna 32.10, 1st rhymed verse line, death is associated again with distortion of the inspired melody/music/sound (sraváv möreñdat) and denying the embodied life and the sun (hvare, Greek helios.)
In Yasna 32.11, 1st rhymed verse line, mar/spoiling/destruction of life (möreñden jyötüm) is associated with having high regard for the deceiver/liar, falsehood (dregvatö mazibísh ci-köiteresh.)
In Yasna 32.12, 2nd rhymed verse line, ruin/death is associated with ravaging/laying waste upon the inspired melody, song, music; and that the curse of the Wise lord will be upon those who kill/slaughter animals with cries of joy.
In Yasna 32.13, 2nd rhymed verse line, death/destruction (marekhtárö “to destroy, put to death”) is associated the abode/dominion of the most broken/beaten spirit mind, limitation and greed.
In Yasna 45.1, 4th rhymed verse line, death is associated with the false teacher (dush-sastish,) an epithet of the evil spirit.
In Yasna 46.11, 2nd rhymed verse line, destruction/death is associated with ritual priests and their deafness and blindness to the skills of the adorable God.
In Yasna 51.10, 1st rhymed verse line, death is associated with the lair of lies, brood/creation of deceit, falsehood and mal-formation, faulty, evil knowledge (dúž-dáv.)
In Yasna 51.13, 1st rhymed verse line, death is associated with the distortion/destruction of the higher vision by the deceiver.
In Yasna 53.6, 5th rhymed verse line, corruption/perversion/death of the existence (ahüm merengedúyæ) is associated with onslaught of the evil deceiver, against the excellent/good and diminish in power.”
(Yasna list was taken from Herbad Ardeshir Farahmand’s “The ancient Indo-Europeans and the View of the poetic gathas and Zoroastrianism on Mortality”.)
Daeva is a Gathic Avesatan word that originally meant a being of shining light. Its Vedic Sanskrit cognate is Deva, which also means a shining celestial or deity in the Rig-Veda. Among several other related words, Dievas, through Indo-European roots, is the Lithuanian cognate of Daeva & Deva and refers to God in Lithuanian folklore. Similarly Asura is the Vedic Sanskrit cognate of Ahura(lord/god) and refers to a type of deity in the Rig-Veda, while Aesir, through Indo-European roots, is the Old Norse cognate of Ahura and refers to the highest ranking gods and goddesses in the Norse Poetic Edda and Prose Edda. Gathic Avestan Ahura & Daeva, Vedic Sanskrit Asura & Deva, Old Norse Aesir, and Lithuanian Dievas, all originally referred to gods/spirits, or a type of god/spirit, in general.
The Daevas are evil in the Gathas because they are the gods/spirits that, through their extreme hubris, arrogance, and pride, chose to side with Debaoma(Arch-Deluder) in making the physical existence(Avestan Astavat/Sanskrit Sat/Pahlavi Getig) marred, diseased, and sickly in Yasna 30.6 and became the seeds of the Akat Manah(Evil Mind) in Yasna 32.3. Debaoma and Akat Manah are aspects and epitaphs of Ahriman(Destructive Spirit). Yasna 30.6 and Yasna 32.3-5 state that the daevas afflict the world with hateful, enfeebling, and malformative acts as well as inspire aggressive, cruel, and self destructive views within the minds of men and women.
The Gathas, which are understood as being the actual words of Zarathushtra Spitama himself by most scholars, expresses a worldview where the Daevas do not represent metaphor, allegory, and abstraction, nor delusions, illusions, and hallucinations of the human mind in discord but instead are understood and regarded as real and existent spiritual beings in their own right that originate from the spiritual/mental existence(Manahya in Avestan/Menog in Phalavi) independent of the human mind.
Spirits, people, animals, and all beings are regarded as expressions of the all pervading Minoo/Minoan/Minu(consciousness/mind energy) of the Universe emanated from Ahura Mazda(God) and can choose between good and beneficent acts or evil and destructive acts which has impact on the Astavat/Sat(physical existence). Spiritual beings such as the ahuras(angels/gods) and daevas(demons) simply reflect this on a higher level as does even the Destructive Spirit. We are all expressions of Minoo(mind energy) either luminous and good or shadowy and noxious through the many types of corruption and distortion of the luminous and good brought upon both by ourselves individually and externally from others on all sorts of levels.
“Nothing was evil from the beginning. Even the Evil Spirit was not so.”
-Herbad Ardeshir Farahmand, Spirit Realms and conflict among the spirits/mind-energies in the pre-mortal existence
In the Gathas and the very early Yasna Haptanghaiti of the Avesta everything is Minoo/Minu(spiritual/mind energy) and is not human centric. People, animals, even nature such as the forests, mountains, and lakes. The physical is really just a manifestation of the spiritual and in fact has its basis in the Manahya/Menog(spiritual/mental existence). There are many examples of sentience being described which do not refer to mankind. Animals being one. The others being Ahura Mazda(God), the Ahuras(angels/gods), and the Daevas(shadowy gods/demons) who split from the Ahuras through their destructive choices.
These are clearly sentient and they clearly aren’t human as they are described as existing even before the Astavat/Sat/Getig(physical existence) emanated out of the Manahya/Menog(spiritual/mental existence). They, the Ahuras, which includes the Amesha Spentas, Yazatas, and Fravashis(guardian angels/divine essence within human souls), and the Daevas, are as much a part of the emanation as the people and the animals are and not any less. Also the world or the physical existence is not an illusion or false existence but instead is very much a real and existent manifestation of the Manahya/Menog(spiritual/mental existence) to be protected and the lines between the physical and spiritual are very thin.
The Daevas are the original basis behind the fallen angels and demons described in ancient Judaism, Christianity, and their apocryphal texts such as the three Books of Enoch and the Book of Giants. Aeshma “of the bloody mace” the daeva of wrath, rage, fury, mental distortion, and the inspiration of brutality against mankind and animals alike in the Gathas is the original name of Asmodeus the demon king described in the Book of Tobit, the Talmud, and the Testament of Solomon.
Rather than being demons encouraging people to commit transgressions against arbitrary laws, rules, and taboos to displease God and receive punishment forever in Hell, as expressed in some explanations of Christianity and Islam, the Daevas, in the Gathas and the early Yasna and Yashts sections of the Avesta, are considered the inspiration of mental misery and suffering, the masterful distorters of truth on all levels imaginable, and the bringers of physical harm of all kind who are associated with the breaking down of the sense, spirit, and minds of beings, in order to bend them into sharing their degenerate and maleficent visions against life.
(From the Gathas composed by Zarathushtra Spitama translated by Herbad Ardeshir Farahmand.)
“Yasna 45.2, 1st and 2nd and 5th rhymed verse lines concerning the primeval world of the spirits/mind-energies;
I shall speak forth of the primeval world of the spirits/mind-energies
When the splendid/auspicious recounted to the afflicted, gloomy one;
Not our visions, not even our souls/passions are akin”
Yasna 30.5, 1st and 2nd rhymed verse lines
“These spirits/mind energies willed//the deceitful (chose) the most afflicted becoming/destiny
Excellence(Asha); the most splendid, auspicious mind-energy”
Yasna 30.4, 1st and 2nd rhymed verse lines, the choice of the spirits establishes vibrant life and miserable existence;
“These spirits/mind-energies together//came in the primeval beginning and established
Life and miserable existence”
In Yasna 44.15, 3rd rhymed verse line;
“The opposing armies came together clashing””
(From the very early Gathic Avestan Yasna Haptanghaiti in the Yasna section of the Avesta translated by L. H. Mills.)
Yasna 39.2 “And we worship the souls of those beasts which are tame and broken in, and of wild herds, and the souls of the saints wherever they were born, both of men and of women, whose good consciences are conquering in the strife against the Daevas, or will conquer, or have conquered.”
(Shows that the souls of animals are important like the souls of people and describes the mental struggle that men and women have with the distortions of the shadowy and noxious mind energies.)
Yasna 39. “And now we worship the Bountiful Immortals (all) the good, and both those male, and those female (by their names). The males among them do we worship, ever living, and ever helpful, who dwell beside the pious, and the females thus the same.”
(Shows the reverence for the progressive and beneficial mind energies of Mazda)
(From the very early Gathic Avestan Fravarane in the Yasna section of the Avesta translated by Joseph H. Peterson.)
Yasna 12.4: “I reject the authority of the Daevas, the wicked, no-good, lawless, evil-knowing, the most druj-like of beings, the foulest of beings, the most damaging of beings. I reject the Daevas and their comrades, I reject the demons (yatu) and their comrades; I reject any who harm beings. I reject them with my thoughts, words, and deeds. I reject them publicly. Even as I reject the head (authorities), so too do I reject the hostile followers of the druj.”
Yasna 12.8: “I profess myself a Mazda-worshipper, a Zoroastrian, having vowed it and professed it. I pledge myself to the well-thought thought, I pledge myself to the well-spoken word, I pledge myself to the well-done action.”
Yasna 12.9: “I pledge myself to the Mazdayasnian religion, which causes the attack to be put off and weapons put down; [which upholds khvaetvadatha], Asha-endowed; which of all religions that exist or shall be, is the greatest, the best, and the most beautiful: Ahuric, Zoroastrian. I ascribe all good to Ahura Mazda. This is the creed of the Mazdayasnian religion.”
From Herbad Ardeshir Farahmand’s article “Angels and Demons in the poetic gathas”.
““Existence,” “Life-force” “Manifesting Power of Mind” is the domain of Ahúrá Mazdá. Demons have NO life-force and are living dead, Stagnated Mind Energies. Theirs is a parasitic, temporary phenomenon until the outcome of the existence, See Yasna 30.4, 2nd rhymed verse line.”
“In Zoroastrianism evil is not a creative force and is secondary in the cosmic order, affirming the priority and superiority of the force of genius and good. Therefore it is not described as a force to be feared. The protection of the adorable powers/aspects of the mind of GD is far greater than the ravage/distortion of the demons, See Holy Denkart, 5.24.21a.
It is not possible for a demon to invade unless there are doors open for it to enter. The door may be a consent or affinity or a physical defect in the being. The demons cannot corrupt unless there is some defect in oneself, some impurity, weakness or, at the very least, ignorance. One should then seek out this weakness in oneself and correct it.
What makes it impossible for demons to prevail in any attack is the “brilliant flow of thoughts,” “perfect contemplation;” “auspicious, serene thinking power,” See Yasna 32.2, 3rd rhymed verse line. Mortal man as a species stands between the angels/aspects of GD’s superb and wondrous mind and the demons or stagnated mind energies, the daævás may be kept in check by the “auspicious, serene thinking power” and an active participation in life through whatever is eternal and undying in thoughts, words and deeds.”
“Their relative parasitic existence is only a phenomenon thrown up by the cosmic Force in its drive towards eternal progress. Limitation, demons, falsehood, evil are all cosmic realities, but relative in their nature, not absolute, since they depend for existence on the perversion or contradiction and are not like excellence, genius and good, self-existent absolutes, inherent aspects of the Self-existent GD of Genius.”
The Gathas also state that over the ages leading up to the Frasho-Kereti(renewal) of the worlds even the Daevas will convert to goodness at the end in Yasna 32.1 and Yasna 48.1.
John Easter 2014
Courtesy of Didier Calin
god (originally of the (Day) Sky)
In. devá- ; Av. daēva-; Phrygian devos; Venetic deivos; Lt. deus; OIr. día; Gmc. *tīwaz (ON týr, pl. tívar); OSl. divŭ; Blt. *deiwas (Pr. deiws, Lith. diẽvas, Lv. dìevs); derivatives: Messapic deiva/dīva-; Osc. deíua- ‘goddess’;
+ Ht. sīuna- ‘god’; adj. siunali- = Lyd. ciwvali- ‘divine’, etc.; Pal. tiunas (KBo XIX 152 III 16 [dZaparf]a tiunas tiunas).
■1 GN + ALL the (other) GODS – PIE (Anatolian, Vedic, Iranian, Greek, Latin, Norse, Latvian) (Schmitt 1967, p. 194, Durante 1976, p. 91, West 2007, p. 102f, 122, Calin 2014, 2015)
○ Ht. a.o. KUB ix 32 Vo. 30f /nepisas/ dUTU dIM /sīunes/-ya hūmantes “the Sun-god of heaven, the Storm-god and all the gods”, KUB vi 45 iii 18f dUTU URU/Arin/na U /sīunas/ hūmandas “of the Sun-goddess of Arinna and of all the gods”, KBo XXVI 65 i 26f dS[uwaliya]ttas /sīun/ass-a hūmandas “of Suwaliyat and all the gods””, Bronze Tablet iii 68f dSarrumma… U ANA /sīunas/… hūmandas “to Sarrumma and all the gods”, KBo V 2 iii 5 nepisi taknī hūmandass-a /sīun/as “to Heaven, to Earth, and to all the gods”, KBo III 4 ii 3f dUTU URUArinna… dU… dMezzullas /sīunes/-ya hūmantes “the Sun-goddess of Arinna, the Storm-god, Mezulla and all the gods”, KBO XVII 105 ii 19ff ANA dLAMMA… d7.7.BI U ANA /sīunas/ hūmandas “to the Tutelary God, to the Divine Seven and to all the gods”
○ HierLuw. Karatepe 1 §73 CAELUM (DEUS)TONITRUS-hu-za-sá CAELUM (DEUS)SOL-za-sá (DEUS)i-ia-sá OMNIS-MI-zi-ha DEUS-ní-zi ( = /tipas Tarhunzas, tipas Tīwazas, Iyas taniminzi-ha māssaninzi/) “the Storm-god, the Sun-god, Ea and all the gods”
○ Mil. TL 44d.14 trqqiz: seb-uwedriz… masaiz: “Trqqiz and all the gods”, TL 55.5 trqqiz… seb-uwedriz… masaiz
○ Lyc. TL 88.6, 93.3 trqqas: se mãhãi huwedri “Trqqas and all the gods”
○ In. a.o. RV 4.19.1ab indra … víśve devâsaḥ “O Indra,… all the gods”, RV 3.40.3ab índra … víśvebhir devébhiḥ “O Indra with all the gods”, RV 10.98.8cd víśvebhir devaíḥ… parjányam “by all the gods… Parjanya”, RV 3.24.4ab, 5.26.4ab ágne víśvebhiḥ… devébhiḥ “Agni with all the gods”, RV 6.15.16ab, TS 18.104.22.168.1 ágne víśvebhiḥ… devaíḥ… sīda “Agni, sit down with all the gods”, RV 7.11.1cd víśvebhiḥ… devaíḥ… ágne “with all the gods, O Agni”, RV 8.10.2c bṛ́haspátiṃ víśvān devân “Brhaspati (and) all the gods”, AV 11.5.5cd,23cd bráhma… devâś ca sárve “Brahma and all the gods”, AV 15.2.1b ādityâś ca víśve ca devâḥ “the Ādityas and all the gods”, AV 2.29.5cd dyâvapṛthivî… víśve devâḥ “Heaven and Earth… all the gods”, RV 10.113.1ab dyâvāpṛthivî… víśvebhir devaíḥ “Heaven and Earth with all the gods”, RV 5.51.8ac víśvebhir devébhiḥ aśvíbhyām uṣásā… agne “with all the gods, with the Aśvins, with Dawn, O Agni”
○ OPers. a.o. DPd 13f,21f,23f Auramazdā … hadā visaibiš bagaibiš “Ahura Mazdā with all the gods”, DB4 60f,62f Auramazdā … utā aniyāha bagāha “Ahura Mazdā and the other gods”
○ Pahl. GrBd 1a4, 4.27 Gannāg Mēnōg ud hammis dēwān “the Evil Spirit and all the dēws”, Bd 3.1 Gannāg Mēnōg… ud hāmist dēwān, GrBd 4.10 Gannāg Mēnōg abāg hammis dēwān “the Evil Spirit with all the dēws”, Bd 3.17 Gannāg Mēnōg abāg hāmist dēwān, Bd 3.53 Gannāg Mēnōg hāmist dēwān
+ ArV 5.3 Mihr… Rašn… Way… Wahram… ud abārīg mēnōgān “Miθra, Rašnu, Wayu, Wahram… and the other Spirits”
○ Bactrian Rabatak inscription 2 ασο νανα οδο ασο οισποανο μι βαγανο “from Nana and from all the gods”
○ Gr. Antiphon, On the Choreutes 6.40 ὦ Ζεῦ καὶ θεοὶ πάντες “O Zeus and all the gods”, Xenophon, Cyropaedia 2.2.10 ὦ Ζεῦ καὶ πάντες θεοί, Il. 1.494f θεοί… πάντες … Ζεύς “all the gods… Zeus”, Il. 9.357 Διί… καὶ πᾶσι θεοῖσι “to Zeus and all the gods”, Orient. Gr. inscr. sel. 532.8f ὀμνύω Δία, Γῆν, ῞Ηλιον, θεοὺς πάντα[ς καὶ πά]σας “I swear by Zeus, the Earth, the Sun and all the gods and goddesses”, 266.20ff ὀμνύω Δία, Γῆν, ῞Ηλιον, Ποσειδῶ, Δήμητρα, ῎Αρη, ᾽Αθηνᾶν… καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους θεοὺς πάντας καὶ πάσας (≈ 51ff, 229ff), Syll. inscr. Gr.2 790 Ib 54ff ὀμνύω Δία (…) καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους θεοὺς πάντας καὶ πάσας (≈ 427a 15ff ὀμνύω Δῆνα, etc.), Julian the Emperor, Epistulae 8 ἴστω Ζεύς, ἴστω μέγας ῞Ηλιος … καὶ πάντες θεοὶ καὶ πᾶσαι “let Zeus know it, let the great Helius know it, and all the gods and goddesses”, Euripides, Medea 752f (I swear by) Γαῖαν ῾Ηλίου θ᾽ ἁγνὸν σέλας θεοὺς τε πάντας “by Earth, by the holy light of Helios, and by all the gods”, SEG XXXII 1612 ἡ῎Αρτεμις … καὶ οἱ θεοὶ ἅπαντες “Artemis and all the gods”
+ Il. 3.308, Od. 3.346, 14.53,119, 18.112 Ζεύς… καὶ ἀθάνατοι θεοὶ ἄλλοι “Zeus and the other immortal gods”, Il. 3.298 Ζεῦ… καὶ ἀθάνατοι θεοὶ ἄλλοι, Il. 22.366 Ζεύς… ἠδ᾽ ἀθάνατοι θεοὶ ἄλλοι, Il. 6.475 Διὶ τ᾽ ἄλλοισίν τε θεοῖσι, Th. 624 Κρονίδης τε καὶ ἀθάνατοι θεοὶ ἄλλοι “the son of Cronus and the other immortal gods”, Od. 21.364f ᾽Απόλλων … καὶ ἀθάνατοι θεοὶ ἄλλοι, Selinous inscr. Schw. 166 δια τος αλλος θεος δια δε Δια “through the other gods and through Zeus”
○ Lt. Plautus, Amphitryon 4.2.3, Menaechmi 5.5.31, Mostellaria 1.1.38f, Pseudolus 3.2.48 Iuppiter dique omnes “Jupiter and all the gods”, Plautus, Menaechmi 4.2.53 per Iouem deosque omnis “by Jupiter and all the gods”, Livy 1.32.10 audi, Iuppiter, et tu, Iane Quirine, diique omnes “hear, O Jupiter, and you, Janus Quirinus, and all the gods”, Plautus, Persa 5.1.3 Iuppiter … dique alii omnes “Jupiter and all the other gods”, Plautus, Bacchides 4.8.51-54 Iuppiter Iuno Ceres Minerua Latona Spes Opis Uirtus Uenus Castor Polluces Mars Mercurius Hercules Summanus Sol Saturnus dique omnes, CIL II 172.14f Iuppiter Optimus Maximus ac diuus Augustus ceteriq(ue) omnes di immortales “Jupiter, best and highest, and divine Augustus and all other immortal gods”, AE 1982, 692 I(oui) O(ptimo) M(aximo) et Iunoni Regin(ae) et Marti Exalbiouici dis deab(us)q(ue) omnibus “to Jupiter, best and greatest, and the queen Juno and Mars Exalbiovix and all the gods and goddesses”, CIL XIII 1745.1-4 I(oui) O(ptimo) M(aximo) Depulsori et diis deabusque omnibus “to Jupiter the destroyer (of enemies), best and greatest, and all the gods and goddesses”, Inscr. Lat. sel. 5653 Ioui Optimo Maximo et caeteris dis deabusq(ue) immortalibus “to Juppiter, best and greatest, and to all the other immortal gods and goddesses”
○ ON Grímnismál 42 Ullar hylli hefr ok allra goða “he has the favor of Ull and the other gods”
○ Lv. LD 33845-1 Pērkons… visi dievi “Pērkons… all the gods”
→→ ALL the GODS
○ Ht. /sīunes/ hūmantes (a.o. KUB v 3 i 57, KUB vi 45 + KUB xxx 14 i 15, KUB xvii 10 iii 30, KUB xx 59 v 2f, KUB xxi 27 ii 25, KUB xxix 1 iii 3, KUB xxxi 44++ ii 29, KUB xxxiii 106 + KBo XXVI 65 iv 19, KUB xxxiii 107 + KUB xxxvi 17 i 6, KUB lvi 19 i 35, KBo III 7 iv 14, KBo IV 13 vi 13ff, KBo XVI 24+ iv 23, KUB xxvii 67 iii 66 hūmandas /sīun/as, KUB xxxiii 93 + iii 24 /sīmus/ hūmandus, KBo VIII 35 ii 17 linkias /sīun/es hūmantes “all the oath gods”)
+ KUB xxi 1 iv 21 /sīunes/ LÚ.MEŠ /sīunes/ MUNUS.MEŠ hūmantes “all the male and the female deities”, KUB xxvii 1 iv 27 /sīunes/ LÚ.MEŠ hūmantes “all the male gods”
○ Luw. KUB xxxii 8+ iv 22 [ta]niminzi /māssanin/z[i] “all the gods”
○ HierLuw. Karkamiš A1a § 18 /māssaninzi taniminzi/ “all the gods”
○ Lyc. TL 57.8f mãhãi huwedri, TL 59.3 muhãi: huwedri:
○ In. víśve devâ(sa)ḥ “All Gods”
+ RV 6.68.4ab gnâś ca yán náraś ca … víśve devâsaḥ “all the gods, female and male”
○ Av. Y 32.3a daēuuā vīspåηhō “all the dēws ( = ancient gods)”
○ Pahl. GrBd 26.18 az hamāg yazdān, Wahman “Wahman, of all deities”
○ Parthian M 4a II V 14, M 47 I V 8 /harwīn baγān/, M 6 Vii 14f /harwīn frēštagān butān ud baγān/ “all the angels, buddhas and gods”
○ Gr. Il. 8.4f θεοί… πάντες (…) πάντες… θεοί, Il. 1.533, 8.18, 22.166 θεοί… πάντες, Il. 5.877, 19.101, 24.62, HH 3.311, Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus 275, Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. 1.547 πάντες… θεοί, Aristophanes, Lysistrata 777 πάντες θεοί, Il. 4.29, 16.443, 22.181 πάντες θεοί ἄλλοι, Il. 8.5, 19.101 πάντες τε θεοὶ πᾶσαι τε θέαιναι “all the gods and all the goddesses”, Il. 19.100 πάντεσσι θεοῖσι, Il. 8.346, 15.368, Od. 13.298, 14.366, 17.50,59, 20.238, 21.203, HH 3.316 πᾶσι θεοῖσι, Il. 6.140,200, 7.412, Od. 8.305, 14.423, HH 5.48 πᾶσι θεοῖσιν, Il. 15.123 πᾶσι… θεοῖσιν, Il. 14.334 θεοῖσιν δὲ πᾶσι, Alcman, fr. 2.1 σιοῖσι π[ᾶσι], Sophocles, fr. 314.8 θεοῖς τε πᾶσι, Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 120 πᾶσι θεοῖς, HH 2.325f, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 513f, Euripides, Medea 753 θεοῦς… πάντας, Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 975 πάντας… θεοῦς, PGM IV 1477f πάντες θεοὶ ἀθάνατοι καὶ πᾶσαι θεαί
+ Mycenean KN Fp 1+31.7 (a.o.) pa-si-te-oi ( = /pánsi theoĩhi/)
○ Lt. omnes di, omnis deos, etc. (Cicero, Plautus, Ovid, etc.)
○ ON Völuspá 23 goðin öll “all the gods”, Fáfnismál 15 öll … goð, Hyndluljóð 50 bið ek … öll goð “I ask all the gods”, Vafþrúðismál 43 frá rúnum allra goða “of the hidden lore of all the gods”, Lokasenna 45 goð öll ok gumar “all the gods and men”, 55 goð öll ok guma
this was very interesting to read-there are so many conflicting views if the devil/angra mainyu and his demons are real or not, i have always tended to believe that the power of evil is real and not just in the minds of evil men/women-as this very interesting article states-however the power of Ahura Mazda is even greater as is also stated in this article -great scripture references to back up the facts and a hopeful end to evil as is also related here at the freshokereti
Extremely well thought out, researched and constructed- I was delighted to see a reference to the (fictional) character, the ‘Maia’ Sauron in Ardeshirs (very appropriate) paraphrase ‘Nothing was evil in the beginning, Not even the Evil One was so’. I admittedly take a position that could be described as influenced by John Okham-, but this seems good to me, and certainly inspiring!
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