We read about Yasna 30.2 in the ancient vársht-mánßr commentary of the poetic gathas; the commentary states this sacred verse is “about the wise choice of WILL by each hero and heroine, and the concluding great battle/reward and the way to it through luminous willpower, about awakening to the lore and teachings of the powers of light before the Great future event.”
We read in the original gatha poetry: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qnbnLN1X8o0&feature=plcp
“Hear with your ears to the wondrous///See with a shining, glowing mind
Will wisely like a wizard///each hero and heroine for own self, in flesh and blood
Before the Great Battle, Event///awaken to our teaching, lore”
I think it is only fair to analyze the keywords in the gathic original to have a more accurate sense of what the prophet seer is expressing:
“Hear with your ears to the wondrous,” the word for wondrous is vahishtá from the root vah “wow-inspiring, superb, amazing.” The ancient commentary by a word play reads it also as vakhsh, “cause to grow, increase, prosper, develop, progress.”
“See with a shining, glowing mind,” The word for “shining, glowing mind” is süchá man.ang.há. Süchá comes from Proto Indo European root skai“shining, glowing” Gothic skeinan “to shine, glow, be splendid bright, luminous.” Man.ang.há is from the root man “mind/spirit, conscious energy, passionate intelligence.”
“Will wisely like a wizard,” ávare.náw comes from the root var/vr: “to WILL, wish, desire, choose;” Old Norse vilja, Gothic waljan, German wählen, Old.Chrurch.Slavonic voljo, voliti “to WILL,” Lithuanian. velyti “to wish, intensely desire.” Vairyö or the will to be god-like in the most sacred yathá ahü manthra is from the same root.
Vichit.ahyá comes from the root vichi, Germanic wicca “wise, wizard, sage.” The poem says; “will/choose like a wizard or great wise one.”
“Each hero and heroine for own self, in flesh and blood,” the word for hero, heroine is “narém-narem” in the original. It comes from the root nar “powerful, virile, courageous;” the Proto-Indo-European root nḗr. Cognates include Ancient Greek ἀνήρ (anēr) Persian (nar) and Sanskrit नर (nára.) Also compare with Lithuanian nóras “will power” Old Irish ner, Welsh nêr/ nerth “manliness, courage hero,” Modern Breton: nerzh “power,” Latin: neriōsus “firm, resolute, powerful,” The personal name Nerō comes from the same root.
Xva-xvayái comes from the root xva, Sanskrit sva, Proto Indo European swe/xwe “own self,” Gothic. swes “one’s own,” Old Church Slavonic svoji“his, her, its own,” Old Norse sik “oneself, personal, private,” particular to oneself.”
tanüyæ comes from the root tan “body, person” probably the original meaning is “trunk.” By tanuu “flesh and blood, solid, physical form” is meant, compare with lithuanian tankus “compact,” i.e. “tightened.”
It simply means the choice of will is private, particular to one’s own self and is a heartfelt desire/will that can be felt even in flesh and blood.”
Pará mazé yáwnghö is literally “prior to the magnificent, great battle/accomplishment.” yáwnghö comes from the root yah/jah, Proto Indo European root yeh/ye “to do, work, endeavor, struggle, battle, fight, overcome, action of accomplishing” Hittite ijami “I accomplish.”
The word yáhí from the same root, appears twice more in the poetic gathas; Yasna 46.14, 3rd rhymed verse line and Yasna 49.9, 4th rhymed verse line. In both the aforementioned verses yáhí is an epithet for “gigantic statute” or achievement in extraordinary degree; compare with Old Norse jotunn, “doing great deeds.”
Based on the gathic evidence and other passages in the poetic gathas;“the great battle” clearly refers to a series of future events, that will culminate in a fresh, new universe and the dawn of an eternal age of progress. The worlds will resurface anew and resplendent forever. And a new age of unlimited consciousness and superb mind-power will begin.
The account of “the great battle” in the 3rd rhymed verse line of Yasna 30.2 is closely connected to the 3rd rhymed verse line of Yasna 36.2. In the ancient vársht-mánßr commentary we read: “The work/activity which is the greatest and most magnificent (mazishtái yáwng-há(n)m,) and is accomplished in the future existence, by which the creatures become anew and resplendent, occurs through fire.”
All of this is almost identical to the accounts of Ragnarök/Ragnarǫk in Norse mythology and the twilight of the gods/Götterdämmerung in a great gigantic future battle.
The Avestan word for Kushti, or the sacred religious cord is aiwi- yáwnghö. Aiwi means “towards” and it implies “endeavor toward renewing the world and making it resplendent.” This means that kushti is the sacred belt for a “warrior of a new age of wisdom and light.”
“awaken to our teaching, lore” the Avestan word is baödantö, it comes from Proto Indo European root bh(e)udh- “to be aware, awake.” The name buddhah“awakened, enlightened” is a cognate. Also compare with Old Church Slavonic bljudo“to observe” Lithuanian budeti“to be awake” Old Irish buide“to observe, be grateful.”
The ancient commentary adds that the two last words “baödantö paití” mean that awakening/enlightenment is the true reign, kingship.
We also read in the Rig Veda 3.5.1 práty agnír ushásash cékitánó bódhi; “agni resplendent in the glory of dawn was awake, enlightened.”
Now let us objectively look at Dr. Ali Akbar Jafarey “personal view” on the above sacred verse. Dr. Jaffarey is considered by his followers to be the true and most eminent scholar on the gathas. His own personal views and words have been more than often cited as the original gathic ideas. He is the leader and original founder of the “gatha movement.” Now let us look at what Dr. Ali Akbar Jafarey has to say about Yasna 30.2, and objectively examine his ideas.
In a long-winded article titled “Freedom of Choice Meaning and Message of Yasna 30:2 by Ali A. Jafarey” states:
With our main subject of Song 3:2 (Yasna 30:2) in view, we now turn to two important points: (a) Mazê Yâonghô, the Great Event and (b) Declaration of Choice.
The word ‘yâonghô/yâh’ is derived from the root yah/Sanskrit yas, meaning ‘to endeavor, to strive.’ It occurs in Song 3:2 (Yasna 30:2), Song 11:14 (Yasna 46:14), and Song 14:9 (Yasna 49:9). It also occurs as ‘mazishtâi yâonghâm – the greatest of events’ in Haptanghaiti Song 2:2 (Yasna 36:2).
The two Gathic instances show that the occasions refer to the days King Vishtaspa and Jamaspa chose the Good Religion and the Haptanghaiti occurrence speaks of the day when the congregation of early Zoroastrians had encircled the Fire altar in their community enclosure for a special occasion called the greatest of the events, perhaps a group initiation into the Good Religion.
Yet, the question arises where in the poetic gathas is there ANY support for Jafarey’s assertion that by the “GREAT BATTLE/ENDEAVOR” the conversion DAYS of scholar-king Vishtáspá and the wise Jámáspá are meant???
As i stated earlier, the epithet yáhí from the same root appears in Yasna 46.14, 3rd rhymed verse line and Yasna 49.9, 4th rhymed verse line. In both cases it is an epithet for “gigantic statute” or “achievement in extraordinary degree,” It is attributed in the first instance to scholar-king Vishtáspá and in the second instance to the most wise Jámáspá. Ancient commentaries translate yáhí as kárík; “extraordinary achiever, doer of great deeds, fighter,” compare with Old Norse jotunn “giant.”
There is NOT ONE single verse in the poetic gathas or the entire Zoroastrian tradition and the vast body of the ancient gathic commentaries that supports Dr. Jafarey’s speculation.
Mr. Jafarey starts his article by the usual middle-eastern flattering talk and correctly states in the beginning of his essay; “One may pick a subject in a stanzas but to comprehend its meaning and message, he/she will have to see it in its context as given in the stanza, then look at it in the song in which the stanza stands, and then understand its interrelation with other stanzas in other songs.”
Now let us just do that, first in Yasna 30 and then in other related songs:
In Yasna 30.7, 2nd rhymed verse line; the seer/prophet talks about “unbreakable, renewed youthful energy for the physical body through the serene flow of spirit and mind energy”
In Yasna 30.8 1st, 2nd, 3rd rhymed verse lines; the seer/prophet talks about “a point in time when those who have erred are vindicated /// power supreme becomes bright and manifest through superb mind/// when lies and deceit are given into the hands of truth, artful brilliance and light.”
In Yasna 30.9, 1st rhymed verse line; the seer/prophet prays “may we be thine own, among those who make the existence resplendent and create anew.”
In Yasna 30.10, 1st rhymed verse line; the seer/prophet sees “a time when the armies of lie and deception are utterly scattered and completely destroyed.”
In Yasna 48.1, 1st, 2nd, 3rd rhymed verse line; the seer/prophet talks about “an age when truth and light win the struggle over lie/// of which the deceived have said that it does not come to pass///the triumph of indestructibility and immortality over demons and mortal men.”
In Yasna 48.4, 4th rhymed verse line; the seer/prophet states “each courageous male and female arrives at last at the realization of thy seer/will.” The aforementioned verse is closely connected to the 2nd rhymed verse line of Yasna 30.2.
Dr Jafarey in another article entitled “Good and Evil in the Gathas” which addresses the same Yasna 30 states: “The resurrection with all its details of how the dead would rise for the final judgment is again absent in the Gathas. The consequences of people’s words and deeds in this world and the progress toward perfection and immortality are a continuous process. There are no pauses, no waiting. God’s creation moves forward and we, souls and bodies, are a part of it.”
Yet, in Yasna 30.7, 2nd rhymed verse line; the seer/prophet talks clearly about “unbreakable, renewed youthful energy for the physical body through the serene flow of spirit and mind energy.”
The word utayütá means “ever-renewed vital force, youthful vigor” and comes from Proto Indo European root yeu, Lithuanian jaunas, Old Church Slavonic junu, Russian. junyj “youthful, young, renewed vitality.”
Kehrpem is “physical body,” Sanskrit Karp, German Körper, English Corpse.
And ár-maiti is the “serene, calm flow of mind power.” Zarathushtra clearly talks about a much more advanced physical form in a future splendid age of boundless consciousness and superb mind power.
The ancient vársht-mánßr commentary of Yasna 48.1 narrates the triumph of the adorable powers of light and genius over demons at the end of various periods prior to the GREAT EVENT. First, that which occurred when Zartósht the Spitaman, came to the poetically inspired, scholar-king Vishtáspá. Second, when the renewed reign and victory are connected once more to the luminous vision and mankind return to the beautiful religion; and this occurs on the near approach of úshedar the future son of Zartósht. Third, when mankind actively adore the beautiful religion of the Mazda-worshippers, and this occurs as úshedar-máh comes. And fourth, that which when everyone shall practice the beautiful religion of Mazda-worship with much eagerness and passion; at that time arrives the beneficial and triumphant producer of the renovation of the worlds, Saöshyánt and this becomes the great accomplishment and supreme triumph of the adorable powers of genius and light.
As we can see the emphasis is on the renewal of being/existence and a new age of superb mind-power.
I should conclude by saying that today the greatest threat to the real gathas and genuine Zoroastrianism comes from individuals who sell their materialistic views and cult of pseudo-intellectualism under the pretext and banner of the poetic gathas and Zoroastrianism.
thank you for this site- which we iranians need in order to know ourselves better and to understand why iranian islam will always be a zoroastrian version of islam. i believe nowadays that the majority of iranians are muslims- but still other muslim countries dont quite understand our customs- shows that our beliefs have not been lost. i dare to say that nowadays zoroastrianism is iranian culture and a strange mixture of zoroastrianism and islam is our religion. i hope you dont mind but i am looking for a way to show and express that we are all both: muslims and zoroastrians but iranians in first place. i just wish openminded muslim organizations in iran and open minded zoroastrian organizations would work together in order to show how much zoroastrianism has influenced our form of islam and without saying i am better than you are or you are better than we are- we see that we are ONE in our various forms. and i wish people in iran would learn sanskrit and avesta in schools too. why not study our roots AND respect other languages such as arabic and hebrew.i do like your site very much and i will use it for quotes and thank you very much for your work.
a very interesting and enlightening article-as far as i know many scholars believe that it was Zarathustra’s religion that has influenced the resurrection of the dead and the Massanic Times beliefs in Judaism, Christianity and Islam